Monday, 31 December 2012

War was always the goal (2)


BENJAMIN DISRAELI. 1804-1881. Novelist. Prime Minister of Great Britain from 1868-1869; 1874-1880. Disraeli 'converted' to Christianity at the age of thirteen in 1817. He is known as the 'father' of British imperialism. A great deal of historical and personal insight can be gained from Disraeli’s crypto-biographical novels. To whit:
"Governments do not govern, but merely control the machinery of government, being themselves controlled by the hidden hand."
Sidonia, the 'hero' of Disraelii’s novel 'Coningsby,' was based on Lord RothschildDisraeli described Sidonia thus:
"He stakes all that he was worth on the Waterloo loan; and the event made him one of the greatest capitalists in Europe… No sooner was Sidonia established in England than he professed Judaism… One source of interest Sidonia found in his descent and in the fortunes of his race… 
There were other and more terrestrial considerations that made Sidonia proud of his origin, and confident in the future of his kind... Sidonia and his brethren could claim a distinction which the Saxon and the Greek, and the rest of the Caucasian nations, have forfeited. The Hebrew is an unmixed race… An unmixed race of a first rate organization are the Aristocracy of Nature." ('Coningsby,' 1844) 
"Sidonia had become one of the most considerable personages in Europe. He had established a brother, or a near relative, in whom he could confide, in most of the principal capitals. He was lord and master of the money market of the world, and of course virtually lord and master of everything else." (Ibid. p. 213.)  
"Young Sidonia was fortunate in the tutor whom his father had procured for him, and who devoted to his charge all the resources of his trained intellect and vast and various erudition. A Jesuit before the revolution; since then an exiled Liberal leader; now a member of the Spanish Cortes; Rebello was always a Jew." (p. 214.) 
"There was not an adventurer in Europe with whom he was not familiar. No Minister of State had such communication with secret agents and political spies as Sidonia. He held relations with all the clever outcasts of the world. The catalogue of his acquaintance in the shape of Greeks, Armenians, Moors, secret Jews, Tartars, Gypsies, wandering Poles and Carbonari, would throw a curious light on those subterranean agencies of which the world in general knows so little, but which exercise so great an influence on public events. 
His… unlimited means, had given him opportunities of becoming acquainted with these characters, in general so difficult to trace, and of gaining their devotion. To these sources he owed that knowledge of strange and hidden things which often startled those who listened to him. Nor was it easy, scarcely possible, to deceive him. 
Information reached him from so many and such contrary quarters, that with his discrimination and experience, he could almost instantly distinguish the truth. The secret history of the world was his pastime. His great pleasure was to contrast the hidden motive, with the public pretext, of transactions." (pp. 218-219.)
The following are Sidonia quotations:
"Yet here is the International Jew, full dress; he is the Protocolist, too, wrapped in mystery, a man whose fingers sweep all the strings of human motive, and who controls the chief of the brutal forces – Money." (Ibid.) 
"That mighty revolution which is at this moment preparing in Germany and which will be in fact a greater and a second Reformation, and of which so little is as yet known in England, is entirely developing under the auspices of the Jews, who almost monopolize the professorial chairs of Germany." (Ibid.) 
Disraeli thus accurately anticipated the 1848 Europe wide revolutions which occurred just four years later.
"Every generation they must become more powerful and more dangerous to the society which is hostile to them… The mixed persecuting races must disappear; the pure persecuted race remains. At this moment, in spite of centuries, of tens of centuries, degradation, the Jewish mind exercises a vast influence on the affairs of Europe… 
You never observe a great intellectual movement in Europe in which the Jews do not greatly participate. The first Jesuits were Jews; that mysterious Russian Diplomacy which so alarms Western Europe is organized and principally carried on by Jews; that mighty revolution which is at this moment preparing in Germany, and which will be, in fact, a second and greater Reformation, and of which so little is known in England, is almost entirely developing under the auspices of Jews, who almost monopolize the professorial chairs of Germany. 
Neander, the founder of Spiritual Christianity, and who is Regius Professor of Divinity in the University of Berlin, is a Jew. Benary, equally famous and in the same university, is a Jew. Wehl, the Arabic Professor of Heidelberg, is a Jew… I resolved to go myself to St. Petersburg. I had on my arrival an interview with the Russian Minister of Finance, Count Cancrin; I beheld the son of a Lithuanian Jew. 
The loan was connected with the affairs of Spain; I resolved on repairing to Spain from Russia. I had an audience immediately on my arrival with the Spanish minister Senior Mendizabel; I behold one like myself, the son of Nuevo Christiano, a Jew of Aragon. In consequence of what transpired at Madrid, I went straight to Paris to consult the President of the French Council; I beheld the son of a French Jew, a hero, an imperial marshal... 
And is Soult a Jew? Yes, and others of the French marshals, and the most famous Massna, for example; his real name was Mannasheh. The consequence of our consultations was, that some northern power should be applied to in a friendly and mediative capacity. We fixed on Prussia; and the President of the Council made an application to the Prussian Minister, who attended a few days after our conference. Count Arnim entered the cabinet, and I beheld a Prussian Jew. So you see, my dear Coningsby, that the world is governed by very different personages from what is imagined by those who are not behind the scenes." (Ibid. pp. 249-252.) 
Marshall Soult was Napoleon’s Chief of Staff at the Battle of Waterloo.

Nathan Rothschild’s considerable fortune grew immeasurably, when he learned of the result of this battle well before anyone other financier in Britain, and was, therefore, able to manipulate the London Stock Exchange to his own very considerable advantage.

In the Preface to the Fifth Edition of May, 1849 of Coningsby, Disraeli wrote:
"The Church is a sacred corporation for the promulgation and maintenance in Europe of certain Asian principles… The Jews were looked upon in the middle ages as an accursed race, the enemies of God and man, the especial foes of Christianity."
 "All is race; there is no other truth, and every race must fall which carelessly suffers its blood to become mixed." ('Tancred,' p. 106. 1847) 
"Under this roof are the heads of the family of Rothschild, a name famous in every capital of Europe and every division of the globe. If you like, we shall divide the United States into two parts, one for you, James and one for you, Lionel . Napoleon will do exactly and all that I shall advise him." (Disraeli was commenting upon the marriage of Lionel Rothschild’s daughter, Leonora, to her cousin, Alphonse, son of James Rothschild of Paris.)
"The influence of the Jews may be traced in the last outbreak of the destructive principle in Europe. An insurrection takes place against tradition and aristocracy, against religion and property… the natural equality of men and the abrogation of property are proclaimed by the Secret Societies which form Provisional Governments and men of the Jewish Race are found at the head of every one of them.  
The people of God co-operate with atheists; the most skilful accumulators of property ally themselves with Communists; the peculiar and chosen Race touch the hand of all the scum and low castes of Europe; and all this because they wish to destroy that ungrateful Christendom… 
When the Secret Societies, in February, 1848, surprised Europe, they were themselves surprised by the unexpected opportunity, and so little capable were they of seizing the occasion, that had it not been for the Jews, who of late years, unfortunately, have been connecting themselves with these unhallowed associations, imbecile as were the governments, the uncalled-for outbreak would not have ravaged Europe.  
But the fiery energy, and the teeming resources of the Children of Israel maintained for a long time the unnecessary and useless struggle. If the reader throw his eyes over the provisional governments of Germany and Italy, and even France, formed at that period, he will recognize everywhere the Jewish element...  
And all this because they wish to destroy that ungrateful Christendom which owes to them even its name, and whose tyranny they can no longer endure… the great transatlantic republic is intensely semitic and has prospered accordingly." ('Life of Lord George Bentinck,' pp. 324 and 357. 1852)
"There is in Italy a power which we seldom mention in this House . . . I mean the secret societies. . . . It is useless to deny, because it is impossible to conceal, that a great. part of Europe--the whole of Italy and France and a great portion of Germany, to say nothing of other countries--is covered with a network of those secret societies, just as the superficies of the earth is now being covered with railroads.  
And what are their objects? They do not attempt to conceal them. They do not want constitutional government : they do not want ameliorated institutions… they want to change the tenure of land, to drive out the present owners of the soil and to put an end to ecclesiastical establishments. Some of them may go further." (House of Commons, July 14th 1856.) 
"The native tendency of the Jewish race is against the doctrine of the equality of man. They have also another characteristic, the faculty of acquisition ... Their bias is to religion, property, and natural aristocracy." ('The Imperial Dreams of Disraeli,' by Bronson Feldman. 'The Psychoanalytic Review,' p. 638. Vol. 53. Winter, 1966-67) 
"The world is weary of statesmen whom democracy has degraded into politicians, who were fully aware of a Master Conspiracy, already a hundred years old and powerfully entrenched." ("Lothair," chapter 17. 1870.) "We have legalised confiscation, consecrated sacrilege and condoned high treason." (Hansard. Column 1007. 27th February, 1871) 
"The governments of the present day have to deal not merely with other governments, with emperors, kings and ministers, but also with secret societies which have everywhere their unscrupulous agents, and can at the last moment upset all the governments' plans." (Aylesbury. September 10th 1876) 
HANNAH ARENDT. German-born American political scientist. 'Men in Dark Times.' 1968. Commenting upon Disraeli’s above remark:
"If one started, as Disraeli did, from the assumption that Jewish millionaires were makers of Jewish politics, if one took into account the insults Jews had suffered for centuries, if one had seen the not infrequent instances when the son of a Jewish millionaire became a leader of the workers' movement and knew from experience how closely knit Jewish family ties were as a rule, Disraeli's image of a calculated revenge upon Christian people was not far fetched." (p. 72.) 
"In… ‘Coningsby,’ he abandoned the dream of a Jewish Empire and unfolded a fantastic scheme according to which Jewish money dominates the rise and fall of courts and empires and rules supreme in diplomacy. Never in his life did he give up this second notion of a secret and mysterious influence of the chosen man of a chosen race, with which he replaced his earlier dream of an openly constituted mysterious ruler caste. It became the pivot of his political philosophy ...  
To Disraeli, it was a matter of course that Jewish wealth was only a means for Jewish politics. The more he learned about Jewish bankers' well-functioning organizations in business matters and their international exchange of news and information, the more convinced he was that he was dealing with something like a secret society which, without anybody knowing it, had the world's destiny in its hands." (Ibid. pp. 75-76)
THE EARL OF SHAFTESBURY. (Anthony Ashley Cooper) 1801-1885. British philanthropist and statesman.
"If we consider their return in the light of a new establishment or colonisation of Palestine, we shall find it to be the cheapest and safest mode of supplying the wants of these depopulated regions… And has not England a special interest in promoting such a restoration? It would be a blow to England if either of her rivals should get hold of Syria." (A letter to Viscount Palmerston. September 25th, 1840. 'History of Zionism,' vol. II, p. 230, by Nahum Sokolow
"There is unbroken identity of Jewish race and Jewish mind down to our times; but the great revival can take place only in the Holy Land." ("Jewish Palestine," by HSacher. 1919.) "Give the country without a people to the people without a country." ('A Historical Survey of Proposals to Transfer Arabs from Palestine 1895 – 1947,' by Rabbi Dr. Chaim Simons. 2001)
THEODORE HERZL1840-1904. Playwright, journalist. The Founder of Modern Zionism.
"The Orient question is now the question of the day. Sooner or later it will bring about a conflict among the nations. A European war is imminent. The great European War must come. With my watch in hand do I await this terrible moment. After the great European war is ended the Peace Conference will assemble. We must be ready for that time. 
We will assuredly be called to this great conference of the nations and we must prove to them the urgent importance of a Zionist solution to the Jewish Question. We must prove to them that the problem of the Orient and Palestine is one with the problem of the Jews, both must be solved together. We must prove to them that the Jewish problem is a world problem and that a world problem must be solved by the world. And the solution must be the return of Palestine to the Jewish people." (In conversation with Litman Rosenthal at the first Zionist Congress, Basl, Switzerland, 1897. 'American Jewish News.' 7th March, 1919)
Herzl here foretells WWI by 17 years and the Versailles peace conference by 22 years.

"A Historical Survey of Proposals to Transfer Arabs from Palestine 1895 – 1947. Latest Revision: 16th December, 2001. 
In one of the first entries in his private diary dated June 1895… Herzl wrote that it would be necessary to remove the non-Jews from such a state. Herzl apparently realised that it would not be prudent to publicise such an idea, since there is not a hint of it in his famous book ‘The Jewish State,’ which was published just a few months later."
DRROBERT JOHN. "Behind the Balfour Declaration: Britain's Great War Pledge To Lord Rothschild."
"Returning from a visit to British East Africa in the Spring of 1903, Minister Joseph Chamberlain put to Herzl the idea of a Jewish settlement in what was soon to become the Colony of Kenya, but through a misunderstanding Herzl believed that Uganda was intended, and it was referred to as the ‘Uganda scheme.’ Of the part of the conversation on the El-'Arish proposal, Herzl wrote in his diary that he had told Chamberlain that eventually we shall gain our aims ‘not from the goodwill but from the jealously of the Powers.’  
With the failure of the El-'Arish proposal, Herzl authorized the preparation of a draft scheme for settlement in East Africa. This was prepared by the legal firm of Lloyd George, (the future Prime Minister) Roberts and Company, on the instructions of Herzl's go-between with the British Government, Leopold Greenberg." 
Lloyd George was retained as legal counsel by the British arm of the Zionist Organisation during the first decade of the twentieth century.

NACHMAN SYRKIN. 1867-1924. Russian Zionist. Leader of the Socialist Zionists at the First Zionist Congress.
"The Jewish Question and the Socialist Jewish State," pp. 59-61. 1898. "The first and foremost territory to be considered for the Jewish State is Palestine, the ancient birthplace of the Jews… In places where the population is mixed, friendly population transfer and division of territory should ensue. The Jews should receive Palestine, which is very sparsely settled and where the Jews even today comprise ten per cent of the population. The Jews should form an alliance with the peoples who are oppressed by Turkey and strive for a just division of the subjugated empire."
Syrkin urged that if after all their efforts the Jews were unsuccessful in obtaining Palestine, they should chose another land: "… which will be vacated for them by means of money." 

LEO MOTZKIN. 1867- 1933. German Zionist. Active in the German Zionist Executive. Thirteenth Conference of German Zionists. Posen, 27th May, 1912. "Our Palestine Policy."
"Our thoughts were then that settlement needs to move in two directions, namely Jewish settlement in Palestine and the resettlement of the Arabs of Palestine in areas outside of Palestine."
BRITISH ROYAL COMMISSION. Agreeing with Winston Churchill’s policy towards Iraq. 1913.
"We must become the owners, or at any rate the controllers at the source, of at least a proportion of the oil which we require."
DAVID LLOYD GEORGE. British Prime Minister from 1916 to 1922.
"I am very keen to see a Jewish state established in Palestine." (In conversation with Herbert Samuel. November 9th 1914. 'Memoirs,' by Samuel
"They (the international bankers) swept statesmen, politicians, jurists and journalists all on one side and issued their orders with an imperiousness of absolute monarchs who knew that there was no appeal from their ruthless decrees." (Describing the Versaille Peace Conference. 'Memoirs.' 'Deadlier Than The H Bomb,' p. 47.)
"We have a written document that guarantees war in twenty years." (Describing the Treaty of Versailles) 
LORD ROBERT CECIL. Assistant British Foreign Secretary. A meeting at the London Opera House. December 1917, to express gratitude to the British Government for issuing the Balfour Declaration.

"A Historical Survey of Proposals to Transfer Arabs from Palestine 1895 – 1947," p. 248, by Rabbi Chaim Simons. 2001.
"Our wish is that Arabian countries shall be for the Arabs, Armenia for the Armenians and Judea for the Jews." 
SIR ARTHUR HIRTZEL. Head of the British government's 'India Office Political Department.' 1919.
"What we want to have in existence… is some administration with Arab institutions which we can safely leave while pulling the strings ourselves; something that won't cost very much, which the Labour government can swallow consistent with its' principles, but under which our economic and political interests will be secure… 
If the French remain in Syria we shall have to avoid giving them the excuse of setting up a protectorate. If they go, or if we appear to be reactionary in Mesopotamia, there is always the risk that Faisal will encourage the Americans to take over both, and it should be borne in mind that the Standard Oil company is very anxious to take over Iraq."
MAX NORDAU. The Leading Zionist orator of the early 20th century. A letter to Israel Zangwill. 15th January, 1919. "British Plans for the Resettlement of Palestinian Arabs," by Joseph Nevada. "Forum," p. 106. Winter, 1981.
"It's no use qualifying your scheme as your own individual idea, we have not to count on the good faith of our eternal enemies, and henceforward they will quote you as their authority for the accusation that, not you Israel Zangwill, but the Jews, all the Jews, are an intolerant lot dreaming only violence and high-handed dealings and expulsion of non-Jews." 
WINSTON CHURCHILL. 1919. Secretary for War.
"There are the Jews, whom we are pledged to introduce into Palestine, and who take it for granted that the local population will be cleared out to suit their convenience." 
Churchill authorised the RAF Middle East Command to use chemical weapons 'against recalcitrant Arabs as an experiment.' 
"We cannot acquiesce in the non-utilisation of any available weapons to procure a speedy termination of the disorder which prevails on the frontier." 
Churchill stated that chemical weapons were 'the application of Western science to modern warfare.'
"I do not understand this squeamishness about the use of gas… I am strongly in favor of using poisoned gas against uncivilized tribes. The moral effect should be good...and it would spread a lively terror." (Commenting on the British use of poison gas against Iraqi population after World War I) 
"Give responsibility for the control of Iraq to the Royal Air Force, thus recognising the ability of air power to maintain effective control of a mandated territory with the maximum economy in the deployment of forces." (Speaking at the Cairo Conference in 1921, whilst he was the Colonial Secretary of the British 'Middle East Department) 

Extracted from, "Library Of Congress Country Studies." 1988. "Israel World War I: Diplomacy and Intrigue." December, 1988.
"Before the emergence of David Lloyd George as prime minister and Arthur James Balfour as foreign secretary in December 1916, the Liberal Herbert Asquith government had viewed a Jewish entity in Palestine as detrimental to British strategic aims in the Middle East. Lloyd George and his Tory supporters, however, saw British control over Palestine as much more attractive than the proposed British-French condominium…  
Lloyd George was determined, as early as March 1917, that Palestine should become British and that he would rely on its conquest by British troops to obtain the abrogation of the Sykes-Picot Agreement. In the new British strategic thinking, the Zionists appeared as a potential ally capable of safeguarding British imperial interests in the region.  
Furthermore, as British war prospects dimmed throughout 1917, the War Cabinet calculated that supporting a Jewish entity in Palestine would mobilize America's influential Jewish community to support United States intervention in the war and sway the large number of Jewish Bolsheviks who participated in the 1917 Bolshevik Revolution to keep Russia in the war. Fears were also voiced in the Foreign Office that if Britain did not come out in favor of a Jewish entity in Palestine the Germans would pre-empt them…  
The Balfour Declaration radically changed the status of the Zionist movement. It promised support from a major world power and gave the Zionists international recognition. Zionism was transformed by the British pledge from a quixotic dream into a legitimate and achievable undertaking… 
At the San Remo Conference, the French also were assured of a mandate over Syria. They drove Faysal out of Damascus in the summer; the British provided him with a throne in Iraq a year later. In March, 1921, Winston Churchill, then colonial secretary, established Abdullah as ruler of Transjordan under a separate British mandate…  
Arab spokesmen, such as Husayn and his sons, opposed the Mandate's terms because the Covenant of the League of Nations had endorsed popular determination and thereby, they maintained, supported the cause of the Arab majority in Palestine… 
Arab leaders particularly objected to the Mandate's numerous references to the ‘Jewish community,’ whereas the Arab people, then constituting about 88 percent of the Palestinian population, were acknowledged only as ‘the other sections.’  
Prior to the Paris Peace Conference… the British military occupation authority in Palestine, fearing an Arab rebellion, published an Anglo-French Joint Declaration, issued after the armistice with Turkey in November 1918, which called for self-determination for the indigenous people of the region…  
The end of Faysal's Greater Syria experiment and the application of the mandate system, which artificially carved up the Arab East into new nation-states, had a profound effect on the history of the region in general and Palestine in particular…  
Sir Herbert Samuels, the first high commissioner of Palestine, was responsible for keeping some semblance of order between the two antagonistic communities. In pursuit of this goal, Samuels, a Jew, was guided by two contradictory principles: liberalism and Zionism. He called for open Jewish immigration and land acquisition, which enabled thousands of highly committed and well-trained socialist Zionists to enter Palestine between 1919 and 1923…
Samuels, however, also promised representative institutions, which, if they had emerged in the 1920s, would have had as their first objective the curtailment of Jewish immigration. According to the census of 1922, the Jews numbered only 84,000, or 11 percent of the population of Palestine. The Zionists, moreover, could not openly oppose the establishment of democratic structures, which was clearly in accordance with the Covenant of the League of Nations and the mandatory systems.... 
Samuels' proposals for a legislative council, an advisory council, and an Arab agency envisioned as similar to the Jewish Agency, were all rejected by the Arabs. After the collapse of the bid for representative institutions, any possibility of joint consultation between the two communities ended." 
ISRAEL ZANGWILL. 1864-1926. Author and Zionist, influential poet and playwright. Zangwill founded the Jewish Territorial Organisation and was active in the suffragette and pacifist movements. He became famous in 1892 with the publication of his book, "Children of the Ghetto."

Zangwill poularised the term and the idea of "The Melting Pot" throughout America with his extremely popular 1908 play of the same name. He felt that the borders of the Zionist homeland must extend as far as the Euphrates, the border of Egypt and Mesopotamia. (Iraq)
"There is, however, a difficulty from which the Zionist dares not avert his eyes, though he rarely likes to face it. Palestine proper has already its inhabitants.... So we must be prepared either to drive out by the sword the tribes in possession as our forefathers did, or to grapple with the problem of a large alien population, mostly Mohammedan and accustomed for centuries to despise us." ('Zionism and England's Offer') 
"Unless therefore, the Arabs would trek into Arabia, or could be peacefully expropriated, any Government set up on a constitutional democratic basis would result, not in a Jewish autonomy but in an Arab autonomy." ('The War for the World,' p. 342. 1916) 
In the summer of 1916, Zangwill met with Vladimir Jabotinsky in London. In 1939, Jabotinsky wrote an account of his "Conversation with Zangwill," which mainly dealt with Zangwill's proposals for the Arabs of Palestine. Zangwill asked Jabotinsky what he would do with the Arabs if the Jews got a Charter for Palestine. Jabotinsky replied that there was enough room in Palestine on both sides of the Jordan for six or eight million people and the Arabs only numbered half a million. Zangwill replied:
"To allow such a situation in our Jewish State would be like gorging out our eyes with our hands. If we receive Palestine, the Arabs will have to 'trek.’ … Progresive nations need to meet and work out a plan for a logical and just re-distribution of territory in such a manner that every people will have its own place and no-one will fear his neighbour…  
In a case like this it is foolish to avoid compulsion… Migration is a fortunate experience. In ninety-nine cases out of a hundred, the transferees have found their new territories to be better, more spacious and healthier." ('A Conversation with Zangwill,' by Vladimir Jabotinsky'Der Moment,' no. 152. 21st July, 1939) 
"The country holds 600,000 Arabs and unfortunately the soil is occupied by the Arabs… there would be, not a Jewish autonomy but an Arab autonomy... In any event the Jews would be swamped… Palestine is not so much occupied by the Arabs as over-run by them... 
We cannot allow the Arabs to block so valuable a piece of historic reconstruction... And therefore we must greatly persuade them to 'trek.’ After all, they have all Arabia with its million square miles, not to mention the vast new area freed from the Turk between Syria and Mesopotamia - and Israel has not a square inch." 
Zangwill suggested that the Arabs should be encouraged ‘to fold their tents' and, ‘silently steal away'."
('The Fate of Palestine,' 'Menorah Journal,' volume iii, no. 4, pp. 196-202. October, 1917)
"If, as you say, the Arabs have been in Palestine 2000 years, then it is high time they trekked, like the Boers from Cape Colony… What injustice is there in transferring the Arab to a similar piece of land in his own kingdom?" (Letter to Lucien Wolf. 'A Historical Survey of Proposals to Transfer Arabs from Palestine 1895 – 1947,' by Rabbi Chaim Simons. 2001) 
"We must suppose that this new system of creative politics will not stop short of disentangling Europe, and that those amicable measures of race redistribution which we have already seen to be an unavoidable part of a final world settlement will be carried out in Palestine as elsewhere. Thus the Arabs would gradually be settled in the new and vast Arabian Kingdom." (Ibid)
Zangwill warned that the World War which had just ended had been 'a sufficient object-lesson in the rankling poisons of race-hatred generated between peoples pent in the same territory.’ Hence the Jews had to 'possess Palestine in the same way as the Arabs had to possess Arabia or the Poles Poland.' (Ibid)
"I hope that by an amicable agreement they (the Arabs) would prefer to trek to their new Arabian State just as the Boers trekked for Cape Colony. In that case the two States could arise side by side and hand in hand. Otherwise he did not see that a Jewish State could arise at all, but only a state of friction." (Ibid. p. 250.)
The presence of 600,000 Arabs was the 'gravest obstacle to the rise of the Jewish State.' (Ibid)
"There is no Arab people living in intimate fusion with the country, utilising its resources and stamping it with a characteristic impress: there is at best an Arab encampment." ('The Voice of Jerusalem') 
If the Jewish National Home were 'to be built up without an Arab trek, it can only be by methods strictly unconstitutional.' (Ibid. p. 108. 1920) By 1920, the League of Nations had been established and Zangwill had hoped that under their auspices a 'friendly arrangement would be fixed up between the Jews and the Arabs, who would gradually retire to their own State.' ('A Historical Survey of Proposals to Transfer Arabs from Palestine 1895 – 1947,' by Rabbi Chaim Simons, 2001)

Zangwill held that in the first instance, reason and goodwill should be used to solve the Arab problem, but failing that: 'then one single act of compulsion is better for both sides than perpetual friction.' (Lecture to Poale Zion. February, 1920. Ibid)

LUCIEN WOLF. British anti-Zionist. A letter to Israel Zangwill. "A Historical Survey of Proposals to Transfer Arabs from Palestine 1895 – 1947," by Rabbi Chaim Simons, 2001.
"The Zionists, however dear may be their memories of 2000 years ago, came to the land as strangers, while the so-called Arabs - by which is meant the fellahin or peasantry - are the indigenous population who were in the country before the first invasion of our people, and who have remained there ever since." 
Wolf felt that although the few hundred thousand Jews of Palestine might benefit from the transfer of the Arabs, seven million Jews in Eastern and South Eastern Europe might have: "… to submit to a similar persecution without any right of appeal to justice and fair play."

Wolf added that, were the eviction of Arabs to take place, an"indelible stigma" would be attached to Jews throughout the world.
"If the so-called Arabs were really Arabs - that is, natives of Arabia - and if the Jews were really Palestinians - that is indigenes of Palestine - there might be something to be said for your argument on the crazy basis of Territorial Nationality, which is the root curse of all our policies. 
But the Arabs are not Arabs. They are only the Moslemised descendants of the indigenous Canaanites, and hence they are in their rightful homeland which, however poor and feckless they may be, is their own. This is so well established an anthropological fact that you will find it referred to as beyond dispute in any good encyclopaedic article on Palestine. 
However, the eleventh edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, published only eight years earlier, shows that the Palestinian population of that day was made up of a patchwork of peoples including very large contingents from the Mediterranean countries, especially Armenia, Greece and Italy.  
The Jews on the other hand, come from the very Mesopotamia to which you would now banish the Arabs. They never struck root in the country, although they certainly sanctified it by great doings... and they passed out of it because in reality it was too small for their great spirit and took the world for their stage."
Zangwill stated that he would:
"... always remain persuaded that a Jewish State was possible at the moment when the Arab was a defeated enemy… by a policy of racial redistribution… The difficulty of making a home out of a territory in which we are only one out of nine inhabitants and in which our total holding of the soil is still below 4 per cent, could have been largely removed." (Lecture at Carnegie Hall, New York at the invitation of the American Jewish Congress. October, 1923. Ibid. p. 271) 
REDCLIFFE N. SALAMAN. M.D. Jewish Officier stationed in Palestine. A letter from Surafend. February, 1919. Ibid. p. 251.
"Unfortunately the fault is not all on their (Arab) side… I fear I. Z's letter has done untold harm… It is radically wrong to suggest a complete removal of the Arabs, simply because it is both impractical and un-English." 
JEWISH CHRONICLE. Editorial. "The Arab Problem." "A Historical Survey of Proposals to Transfer Arabs from Palestine 1895 – 1947," p. 242, by Rabbi Chaim Simons. 2001.
"The vital Arab question will be dealt with on something like rational and reasonable lines. Expropriation, as Mr. Zangwill proposes, we do not think comes under either of these categories, any more than does the policy of peaceful penetration of Jews on the one hand, and gradual elimination of the Arabs on the other, which is said to be the official Zionist plan." 
JEWISH CHRONICLE. Further editorial. 1920. Ibid.
"Without seeing eye to eye with Mr. Zangwill on all the points in his brilliant speech... we would express our general concurrence in his views." 
BERNARD RICHARDS. Secretary of the American Jewish Congress. A letter to "The New Palestine." Ibid. p. 275.
"To pretend that many of us have not for years been thinking what Mr. Zangwill is saying, is only a form of hypocrisy which does not add to the dignity of Jewish life." 
RABBI DR. CHAIM SIMONS. 1942- B. Sc. PhD. "A Historical Survey of Proposals to Transfer Arabs from Palestine 1895 – 1947." Latest Revision: 16th December, 2001.
"Abdullah, one of the sons of Sherif Hussein of Mecca, had, in 1921, moved into Transjordan with a band of guerilla Arabs, declaring his intention to recover Syria, from which his brother Feisal had been driven out by the French. Winston Churchill, then British Colonial Secretary, went to the Middle East to meet with Abdullah and promised him recognition as Emir of Transjordan, provided that he did not violate the frontier with Syria. 
At his meeting with Churchill, Abdullah had asked whether the British Government's policy was to ‘… establish a Jewish Kingdom west of the Jordan and to turn out the non-Jewish population?… The Allies appeared to think that men could be cut down and transplanted in the same way as trees.' 
The High Commissioner, Herbert Samuel, who had accompanied Churchill replied that ‘there was no intention either to cut down or to transplant but only to plant new ones.’ Churchill said that there was a ‘great deal of groundless apprehension among the Arabs in Palestine,’ and that their rights would be strictly preserved."
 THE OBSERVER. March 16th 2003.
"Iraq was the British Empire's greatest disaster. At the Cairo conference in 1921, Britain locked the Kurds into the prison of the Iraqi state and later ordered the RAF to bomb Kurdish villages into submission." 
MUSA KAZEM HUSSEINI. Leader of the Arab Executive Committee in 1921. Memorandum to Winston Churchill, Secretary of State for the Colonies.
"The fact that a Jew is a Jew has never prejudiced the Arab against him… Jews have been amongst the most active advocates of destruction in many lands... the disintegration of Russia was wholly or in part brought about by the Jews and a large proportion of the defeat of Germany and Austria must also be put at their door." 
LALKAR. Fortnightly newspaper. "Labour Party - 100 Years Of Faithful Service To Imperialism," part 3.
"As regards the Middle East, the first Labour Government went on further to stabilise the gains secured by British imperialism at the Versailles Conference, refusing at the same time to entertain the legitimate claims of Egypt over the Suez Canal. Within six months of the formation of the Labour government, Iraqi tribal villages were being subjected to aerial bombardment on the instructions of Labour's Secretary of State for Air, Lord Manson."
ARTHUR HARRIS. Chief of RAF Bombing Command in World War II. Squadron leaders in the air campaign against Iraq in 1924. "Economic & Political Weekly." 9th January, 1999.
"The Arab and Kurd now know what real bombing means in casualties and damage. They know within 45 minutes a full-sized village can be nearly wiped out and a third of its inhabitants killed or injured."
DRCHAIM WEIZMANN. First President of Israel.
"I think that a Jewish Palestine must become a war aim for America." (A letter to Louis DBrandeis, Supreme Court Justice and principal advisor to Woodrow Wilson. January 14th 1918.) 
"All necessary measures should be taken to encourage and stimulate immigration of Jews into Palestine on a large scale, and as quickly as possible to settle Jewish immigrants upon the land through closer settlement and intensive cultivation of the soil…the Arab peasant and tenant farmers shall be protected in their rights, and shall be assisted in forwarding their economic development." (An agreement reached with Emir Faisal, prompted by the British Foreign Office. January, 1919) 
"A Jewish State, a Jewish nation, a subordinate population of Arabs etc. ruled by Jews; the Jews in possession of the fat of the land, and directing the administration." (A sentiment attributed to Weizmann by British Foreign Minister Lord Curzon in 1919. 'Ingrams, Palestine Papers, 1917-1922,' p. 58.) 
"We told the authorities in London; we shall be in Palestine whether you want us there or not. You may speed up or slow down our coming, but it would be better for you to help us, otherwise our constructive force will turn into a destructive one that will bring about ferment in the entire world." ('Judische Rundschau.' Germany, 1920) 
"Some radical solution must be found, and he didn't see why one should not really make Palestine a National Home for the Jews and tell it frankly to the Arabs, pointing out to them that in Transjordan and Mesopotamia [Iraq] they had vast territories where they could develop their life and civilisation without let or hinderance, but that the Jews were entitled to work in Palestine unmolested, and that in the end it would be good for all parties concerned." ('A Historical Survey of Proposals to Transfer Arabs from Palestine 1895 – 1947," by Rabbi Dr. Chaim Simons. 2001) 
"We do not aspire to found a Zionist State. We cannot hope to rule in a country in which only 1/7th of the population at present are Jews." ('Far And Wide,' p. 318) 
"The very restricted area of the proposed Jewish State makes some arrangement for the gradual transfer of its Arab population absolutely essential. This will be a difficult and delicate process; its desirability is mentioned by the Royal Commission, but definite and precise arrangements with the Mandatory Power and with the Arab State would be necessary for its successful execution." (Letter to Jan Smuts, the Prime-Minister of South Africa, 29th September, 1937) 
"The fire from the synagogues may easily spread from there to Westminster Abbey and the other great English cathedrals. If a government is allowed to destroy a whole community which has committed no crime save that of being a minority and having its own religion, if such a government, at the heart of Europe, is not even rebuked, it means the beginning of anarchy and the destruction of the basis of civilization. The powers which stand looking on without taking any measures to prevent the crime will one day be visited by severe punishment." (In conversation with Anthony Eden, the British Foreign Secretary. 1938. 'Trial & Error,' p. 498. 1949.) 
Weizmann, together with Dr. Dov Joseph, arrived in Alexandria, Egypt in 1939. A Sephardi lawyer named Metrani visited them and had a private conversation with Weizmann. Following this conversation, Weizmann said that it 'related to Tewfiq Suweidi's readiness under certain conditions to assist in the promotion of a project for the settlement of Palestinian Arabs in Iraq.'

At which point Joseph drew Weizmann's attention to the 'importance of any such project being presented to the Arab public as a purely Arab project put forward because of the interest of Iraq in increasing its population and developing its vast uncultivated areas.' If Iraqi government leaders 'could be persuaded to commence propaganda among the Arabs of Palestine to move to Iraq’ then the Jews could take part in the project and then start buying land in Palestine. 'They would be transferring the Arabs only into Iraq or Transjordan.' (Diary entry, 30th January, 1941. 'A Historical Survey of Proposals to Transfer Arabs from Palestine 1895 – 1947,' by Rabbi Dr. Chaim Simons. 2001)
"If half a million Arabs could be transferred, two million Jews could be put in their place. That, of course, would be a first installment; what might happen afterwards was a matter for history." (A meeting with the Russian Ambassador, Ivan Maisky. 30th January, 1941. Diary entry, 30th January, 1941. "A Historical Survey of Proposals to Transfer Arabs from Palestine 1895 – 1947," by Rabbi Dr. Chaim Simons. 2001)
"We are not denying and are not afraid to confess. This war is our war and that it is waged for the liberation of Jewry... Stronger than all fronts together is our front, that of Jewry. We are not only giving this war our financial support on which the entire war production is based, we are not only providing our full propaganda power which is the moral energy that keeps this war going.  
The guarantee of victory is predominantly based on weakening the enemy, forces, on destroying them in their own country, within the resistance. And we are the Trojan Horses in the enemy’s fortress thousands of Jews living in Europe constitute the principal factor in the destruction of our enemy. There, our front is a fact and the most valuable aid for victory." (A speech as President of the World Jewish Congress. New York, December 3rd 1942) 
"A miraculous simplification of our task." (How Weismann described the massacre of over 100 Arab civilians in the village of Deir Yassin by Irgun terrorists in 1948.) 
"We will never actually have to use this atomic weapon in military operations as the mere threat of its use will persuade any opponent to surrender to us... 
Anti-Semitism is a bacillus which every Gentile carries with him wherever he goes and however often he denies it." (In conversation with the British Labour MP, Richard Crossman.)
DRDRUMMOND SHIELS. British Assistant Colonial Secretary. "A Historical Survey of Proposals to Transfer Arabs from Palestine 1895 – 1947," by Rabbi Dr. Chaim Simons. 2001. A meeting in the House of Commons with Chaim Weizmann. 4th March, 1930) According to Weizmann, Shiels said:
"Some radical solution must be found, and I don’t see why one should not really make Palestine a National Home for the Jews and tell it frankly to the Arabs, pointing out to them that in Transjordan and Mesopotamia [Iraq] they had vast territories where they could develop their life and civilisation without let or hinderance… In the end it would be good for all parties concerned… It only required careful preparation and goodwill."
DAVID BEN GURION. 1886-1973. First Prime Minister of Israel.
"I favour compulsory transfer; I see nothing unethical in it." ('The Jewish Chronicle,' p. 7. 3rd January, 1919) 
"If the Arabs would leave Palestine and Transjordan to the Jews, they could count on Jewish help, not only in resettling the displaced Palestinians, but for Arab causes in other countries." (Summer, 1934. A meeting with Sheikh Arslan. "A Historical Survey of Proposals to Transfer Arabs from Palestine 1895 – 1947," by Rabbi Dr. Chaim Simons. 2001) 
"We see need... to pressure the British Government… or at least the possibility of purchasing land for the purpose of settling Arabs from Western Palestine who will agree to transfer to Transjordan." (Zionist meeting, 5th May, 1937. "Memoirs," volume 4, p.175, by David Ben-Gurion)  
"For every transferred Arab, one could settle four Jews on the land… if the Government rejects the Commission's proposal for compulsory transfer - which is almost certain - then we will have an additional and weighty argument in favour of our claim on the Negev… In the event of the compulsory transfer being rejected by the Government, we will remain in Transjordan - even if the border suggested by the Commission, north of the Yarmuk-Jordan junction is not rectified." (Diary entry, 11th July, 1937)  
"With the removal of the Arabs from the Plains, we are getting for the first time in our history a truly Jewish State… Of course they will not do it, if we do not will it and if we do not urge them with all our might and main… any wavering on our part as to the necessity of this transfer, any doubt on our part as to the possibility of its achievement, any hesitation on our part as to the justice of it, are likely to lose us a historic opportunity which will not reoccur… 
If we are not able to remove the Arabs from our midst now and transfer them to the Arab area as the British Royal commission has suggested to England, then we will not be able to do it easily after the establishment of the State." (Diary entry, 12th July, 1937)  
"All the Plains in the Jewish State will be cleared of their Arab residents." (Diary entry. 17th July, 1937)  
"We must expel Arabs and take their place… if we have to use force - not to dispossess the Arabs of the Negev and Transjordan, but to guarantee our right to settle in those places - then we will have force at our disposal." (A letter to his son Amos, 5th October, 1937)  
"Let us not ignore the truth among ourselves... politically we are the aggressors and they defend themselves... The country is theirs, because they inhabit it, whereas we want to come here and settle down, and in their view we want to take away from them their country... Behind the terrorism is a movement, which though primitive is not devoid of idealism and self sacrifice." (1938 speech. "Fateful Triangle," pp 91-2, by Noam Chomsky)  
"We will offer to Iraq ten million pounds to transfer one hundred thousand Arab families from Palestine to Iraq. Were it not for Ibn-Saud and Egypt, there would perhaps be a chance for this proposal. However, whether or not there is a chance, we should approach them with this extensive plan." (Diary entry, 10th December, 1938)  
"Every school child knows that there is no such thing in history as a final arrangement, not with regard to the regime, not with regard to borders, and not with regard to international agreements." ("War Diaries," 3rd December, 1947. Following Israel’s 'acceptance' of the U.N. Partition of Israel. "Birth of Israel," p. 13, by Simha Flapan)  
"After the formation of a large army in the wake of the establishment of the state, we will abolish partition and expand to the whole of Palestine." ('The Birth of Israel,' p. 22, by Simha Flapan. 1987)  
"Regarding the Galilee, Mr. Sharett already told you that about 100,000 Arabs still now live in the pocket of Galilee. Let us assume that a war breaks out. Then we will be able to cleanse the entire area of Central Galilee, including all its refugees, in one stroke. In this context let me mention some mediators who offered to give us the Galilee without war.  
What they meant was the populated Galilee. They didn’t offer us the empty Galilee, which we could have only by means of a war. Therefore if a war is extended to cover the whole of Palestine, our greatest gain will be the Galilee. It is because without any special military effort which might imperil other fronts, only by using the troops already assigned for the task, we could accomplish our aim of cleansing the Galilee."  
"It’s not a matter of maintaining the status quo. We have to create a dynamic state, oriented towards expansion."  
"The Achilles' heel of the coalition... is Lebanon. Muslim supremacy in that country is artificial and could easily be reversed; a Christian state must be set up in that country. Its southern frontier would be the Litani river." (Diary entries. May 21st 1948. "Ben Gurion ; le prophète armé," p. 139, by Michael Ben Zohar)
"I am for compulsory transfer; (of Arabs from areas under Israeli control) I don’t see anything immoral in it." ("The Birth Of Israel: Myths And Realities," p. 103, by Simha Flapan
"The image of the world... As traced in my imagination, the increasing influence of… men of science, may transform the United States into a welfare state with a planned economy. Western and Eastern Europe will become a federation of autonomous states having a socialist and democratic regime. With the exception of the US S.R. as a federated Eurasian state, all other continents will become united in a world alliance, at whose disposal will be an international police force…  
In Jerusalem, the United Nations will build a shrine of the Prophets to serve the federated union of all continents; this will be the seat of the Supreme Court of mankind, to settle all controversies among the federated continents, as prophesied by Isaiah." ('LOOK' magazine, p. 20. January 16th 1962)
GENERAL PATRICK JHURLEY. President Roosevelt’s envoy in the Middle East. A letter to Roosevelt. May, 1943.
"For its part, the Zionist organization in Palestine has indicated its committment to an enlarged program for 'a sovereign Jewish State which would embrace Palestine and probably Transjordania, an eventual transfer of the Arab population from Palestine to Iraq'."
BRITISH FOREIGN OFFICE. Policy memo, 1947. "Our strategic and security interests throughout the world will be best safeguarded by the establishment in suitable spots of 'Police Stations,' fully equipped to deal with emergencies within a large radius. Kuwait is one such spot from which Iraq, South Persia, Saudi Arabia and the Persian Gulf could be controlled. It will be worthwhile to go to considerable trouble and expense to establish and man a, 'Police Station,' there."

MARK WEBER. Historian. Director of the Institute for Historical Review. "American Dissident Voices." 11th October, 2002.
"America had no enemies in the Arab or Muslim world until the state of Israel was founded… Before 1948, before the establishment of the state of Israel, America was the most beloved country in Arab and Muslim countries, among those peoples.  
But our perverse relationship, our unstinting support, what politicians call our, ‘special relationship,’ with Israel, has skewed our relations with the Arab and Muslim world, and now, I think, increasingly with the entire rest of the world. This is reflected, time and time and time again, in United Nations votes in which Israel and the United States are completely alone against the rest of the world. Of course, Israel and its friends and apologists claim that this is somehow a manifestation of anti-Semitism."
CRANE EVELAND. Former CIA agent stationed in Iraq. "The Fate of the Jews. A People Torn Between Israeli Power and Jewish Ethics," p. 23, by Roberta Strauss Feuerlicht. 1983.

A few months before his arrival in Iraq in 1950, a bomb went off outside a Passover gathering, which persuaded 10,000 Jews to move to the new Israeli state.
"Just after I arrived in Baghdad, an Israeli citizen had been recognized in the city's largest department store: his interrogation led to the discovery of fifteen arms caches brought into Iraq by an underground Zionist movement. In attempts to portray the Iraqis as anti-American and to terrorize the Jews, the Zionists planted bombs in the United States Information Service Library and in synagogues. Soon leaflets began to appear urging Jews to flee to Israel... 
Although the Iraqi police later provided our embassy with evidence to show that the synagogue and library bombings, as well as the anti-Jewish and anti-American leaflet campaigns, had been the work of an underground Zionist organization, most of the world believed reports that Arab terrorism had motivated the flight of the Iraqi Jews whom the Zionists had 'rescued,' really just in order to increase Israel's Jewish population."
GOLDA MEIR. Israeli Prime Minister.
"There is no such thing as a Palestinian people... It is not as if we came and threw them out and took their country. They didn’t exist." ('The Sunday Times,' 15th June, 1969) 
"There will be peace in the Middle East only when the Arabs love their children more than they hate Israel." ( 
"How can we return the occupied territories? There is nobody to return them to." ('The Zionist Connection II: What Price Peace,'chapter 13, by Alfred Lilienthal
"The borders are determined by where Jews live, not where there is a line on the map." ('Afterward. Marching Forward,' by Noam Chomsky. 'For Palestine,' p. 236, edited by Jay Murphy. 1993)
MENACHEM BEGIN. Prime Minister of Israel from 1977. Begin became head of the Irgun in 1943. The Irgun was a Jewish terrorist movement operating in Palestine during the 1930s/1940s. On July 22 1946, Irgun bombed the British Military Headquarters based in the King David Hotel, Jerusalem leaving according to official sources 91 dead.
"More than two hundred people were killed or injured." (Bragging about the number of (mostly British) lives the action he ordered had taken. "The Revolt," p. 295)  
"The King David was a fortress in those days, surrounded by barbed wire and machineguns. For the Haganah the most important aim was to destroy the documents taken from the Jewish Agency… They were frightened the British would declare the JewishAgency illegal." ('The Palestine Triangle,' p. 257, by Nicholas Bethell)  
"I think that by what we did we must have saved the lives of several dozen men of the Underground." (Referring to the hanging of two British Segeants by the Irgun in 1947. "Begin," p. 379.)
"Our enemies called us terrorists... People who were neither our friends nor our enemies... also used this Latin name ... (The British) called us 'terrorists' to the end... Fighters for freedom must arm; otherwise they would be crushed overnight... What has a struggle for the dignity of man, against oppression and subjugation, to do with 'terrorism?'" ('The Revolt: Story of the Irgun,' pp. 59-60. 1964)  
"Mossad can go to any distinguished American Jew and ask for help." (Ex-CIA official, 9/3/1979, 'Newsweek')  
"There will never be a Palestinian state." "Operation Peace for Galilee (the invasion of Lebanon) is not a military operation resulting from the lack of an alternative. The terrorists did not threaten the existence of the state of Israel…  
In November 1956 we had a choice. The reason for going to war then was the need to destroy the fedayeen, who did not represent a danger to the existence of the state. Thus we went off to the Sinai campaign…  
The Egyptian army concentrations in the Sinai approaches do not prove that Nasser was really about to attack us. (In 1967) We must be honest with ourselves. We decided to attack him. 
This was a war of self-defense in the noblest sense of the term. The Government of National Unity then established decided unanimously: we will take the initiative and attack the enemy." (Speech before the Israeli National Defense College. Begin was trying to defuse mounting criticism of Israel’s invasion of Lebanon, which had begun two months earlier. Aug. 8th 1982)  
"(The Palestinians) are beasts walking on two legs." (Speech to the Knesset. 'New Statesman, 25th June  1982)  
"A million gentiles aren't worth a Jewish fingernail."
YITZHAK RABIN. Future Defense Minister and Prime Minister of Israel. Assinated in 1995.
"I want to tell you the truth. For 27 years the Palestinians ... have risen in the morning and cultivated a burning hatred for us as Israelis and Jews. Every morning they awake to a difficult life and it is partly our fault... 
It cannot be denied: the continued rule of a foreign people who does not want us has a price. This is first of all a painful price, the price of constant confrontation between us and them." ('Beyond the Promised Land. Jews and Arabs on the Hard Road to a New Israel,' (p. 377, by Glenn Frankel. 1994)  
"The use of force, including beatings, undoubtedly has brought about the impact we wanted, strengthening the population’s fear of the Israeli Defense Forces." 
After destroying the aircraft of Egypt, Syria and Jordan on the ground in a lightening attack, Israeli forces invaded and occupied the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, East Jerusalem, the Golan Heights and the Sinai Peninsula. Rabin, who, as Chief of Staff, planned this attack said: 
"We knew that Nasser did not intend to attack." ('Le Monde,' February, 1968) 
Immediately after the attack Israel charged that they themselves were about to be attacked, the media broadcast the Israeli viewpoint to the public at large, and the whole of the western world sympathized with Israel. This version of events has since been completely discredited. The Israelis nowadays do not claim that they were about to be attacked, they claim that they were in danger of being attacked, and hence resorted to a pre-emptive strike.

YITZHAK SHAMIR. Prime Minister of Israel. Former leader of the Stern Gang, an Israeli terrorist organisation active in the decade before independence was declared in 1948.

The Stern Gang assassinated the United Nations peace representative Count Folke Bernadotte in 1948.

CHUCK HAGEL. Republican Senator for Nebraska. Vietnam veteran.
"It is interesting to me that many of those who want to rush this country into war and think it would be so quick and easy don't know anything about war. They come at it from an intellectual perspective versus having sat in jungles or foxholes and watched their friends get their heads blown off… Maybe Mr. Perle would like to be in the first wave of those who go into Baghdad." 
"The thought of Saddam Hussein with a sophisticated nuclear capability is a frightening thought, okay? Now, having said that, I don't know what intelligence the US government has. And before I can just stand up and say, 'Beyond a shadow of a doubt, we need to invade Iraq,' I guess I would like to have better information.  
Candidly, I have gotten somewhat nervous at some of the pronouncements Rumsfeld has made. It's scary, okay? Let's face it: There are guys at the Pentagon who have been involved in operational planning for their entire lives, okay?… And for this wisdom, acquired during many operations, wars, schools, for that just to be ignored, and in its place have somebody who doesn't have any of that training, is of concern."
COLONEL DAVID HACKWORTH. "Newsday." 24th January, 2003. Hackworth was the youngest US captain in the Korean War, and the youngest colonel in Vietnam.
"Having thought long and hard about war with Iraq. I cannot find justification. I don't see a threat. They are not Nazi Germany. This is not the Wehrmacht. In no way does the situation in Iraq affect my nation's security. That is the bottom line of analyzing threats. 'Does this country threaten my country's security?' In this case, absolutely not…  
I don't think militarily it will be a big deal to smack this little broken pussycat out of the way. Four weeks, he's history. He'll be tacked up on the barracks wall. Iraq is not a tiger that is roaring with nuclear weapons in each paw like North Korea… There's a real possibility we take catastrophic casualties. 160,000 disabled and almost 10,000 dead as a result of Gulf War illness. All of us that were there, we look in the mirror and still wonder if something is going happen to us…  
We're still in Japan, Korea and Germany 57 years after World War II. My guess is at least 60 years in Iraq, costing as much as $2 trillion to $3 trillion… One and a half billion Muslims, who don't like us anyway. Now they're gonna look and say, 'Here come the crusaders again'... 
Cheney and Bush and Wolfowitz and Rumsfeld, they've never stood and faced the elephant. These are the people who gush for war. Through the long eight-year bloodbath of Vietnam, not one general sounded off and said, 'Bad war, can't win it, let's get out.' They went along to get along. It's true again. The top generals are head-shakers."  
"Not only have the past six decades of hot and cold war bucks been finger-lickin' good for the game's insiders who slip back and forth between government and business, they have also motivated a lot of fanatics around the world to hate all things American. And now many of these scary types are willing to kamikaze planes into buildings on Main Street USA or drive explosive-laden trucks into our facilities in other countries where we probably shouldn't be." (  
"If GWB doesn't make sure we've battened down the home-front hatches before heading for Baghdad – which you can count on millions of Muslims viewing as an attack on the Islamic world, the invasion of Iraq will surely activate thousands of Arab kamikazes coiled like rattlesnakes, waiting to strike us from ‘sea to shining sea.’" (Ibid.) 
"Here we are, the most powerful nation in the world, the sole surviving superpower, and around the globe our military folks are hunkered down like inmates in maximum- security prisons. In dozens of other overseas hot spots, our soldiers live in virtual barbwire enclosed fortresses and call themselves POPs, prisoners of peace." (Ibid.)
JIM LOBE TOM BARRY. "Foreign Policy in Focus." November 4th 2002.
"In engineering the radical break in US foreign policy, Wolfowitz, Rumsfeld and Cheney relied on a handful of think tanks and front groups that have closely interlocking directorates and shared origins in the right-wing and neo-conservative organizations of the 1970s. Organizations such as the Project for a New American Century (PNAC), the Centre for Security Policy (CSP) and the American Enterprise Institute (AEI) have supplied the administration with a steady stream of policy advice and also with the men-and they are virtually all men-to steer the ship of state on its radical new course.  
These men are by no means new recruits to the foreign policy elite. They cut their teeth on some of the most fateful foreign policy debates of the last thirty years… Until now, their greatest moments came during Reagan's first term in which most of them held high office. But now, in a world without the Soviet Union, their ambitions are much greater.  
In 1997, an influential group of neo-conservatives, social conservatives and representatives of what Eisenhower referred to as the military-industrial complex came together to form Project for a New American Century (PNAC). Conservatives had failed to ‘confidently advance a strategic vision for America's role in the world,’ the group lamented in its statement of principles.  
It continued, ‘We aim to change this. We aim to make the case and rally support for American global leadership.’ Noting what they called ‘the essential elements of the Reagan administration's success,’ namely ‘a strong military’ ready to meet ‘present and future challenges,’ they proudly declared: ‘A Reaganite policy of military strength and moral clarity may not be fashionable today. But it is necessary if the US is to build on the success of this past century and ensure our security and greatness in the next.’  
Among the twenty-five signers were Wolfowitz, Libby, Rumsfeld, Cheney, Elliott Abrams, Zalmay Khalilzad and other right-wing luminaries who five years later would use the Sept. 11 outrage to realize their long-held dreams of a new American empire… PNAC has acted as a front group that issues timely statements, often in the form of open letters to the president. Its influence signals the degree to which neoconservatives have charted the main outlines and trajectory of the Bush foreign policy.  
Founded by ‘Weekly Standard’ pundits William Kristol and Robert KaganPNAC is the latest incarnation of a series of predominantly neoconservative groups such as the Coalition for a Democratic Majority (CDM) and the Committee on the Present Danger (CPD). In the 1970s, these groups played key roles in helping to marshal diverse right-wing constituencies around a common foreign and defense policy and organize highly sophisticated public and media campaigns in pursuit of their goals.  
Their main targets of the time were Jimmy Carter, détente and arms control agreements with the Soviet Union, but they also used their zest for ideological combat, their political savvy and propaganda skills to prepare the ground for and later oversee the more radical policies pursued by the incoming Reagan administration, including Star Wars, the anti-communist crusades in Central America, southern Africa and Afghanistan, and the creation of a ‘strategic alliance’ with Israel…  
In a 1996 essay in Foreign Affairs, ‘Toward a Neo-Reaganite Foreign Policy,’ PNAC directors Robert Kagan and William Kristol signaled that the right was preparing a new foreign policy agenda that would seize control of the ‘unipolar moment’ and extend it indefinitely into the next century.  
During the presidential campaign in 2000, Kagan and Kristol edited ‘Present Dangers: Crisis and Opportunities in American Foreign and Defense Policy,’ a PNAC book that included chapters written by many of the leading neoconservative strategists and academics, including Richard PerleReuel Marc GerechtPeter RodmanElliott AbramsFredrick Kagan, William Bennett and Paul Wolfowitz
This book, with its call for a policy of ‘regime change’ in Iraq, China, North Korea and Iran, its prescriptions for maintaining ‘American preeminence,’ its recommendations to build global missile defense systems and to distance Washington from arms control treaties and its pro-Likud position, were presented as a blueprint for a new Republican administration. 
The extent that the Bush administration has adopted this agenda and integrated its authors into its foreign policy brain trust illustrates the success of PNAC, a group that received no attention during the campaign and despite its continuing influence still remains in the shadows of the public debate about the direction of US foreign policy. 
PNAC in the late 1990s successfully rallied key right-wing personalities-including men from the Christian Right like Gary Bauer and other social conservatives like William Bennett, behind their imperial vision of US supremacy… Two other groups, the Centre for Security Policy and Empower America played a similar role with respect to forging a new coalition behind the goal of US military and cultural supremacy.  
Whatever the validity of US military supremacy theory as a legitimate or effective defense posture, the ideology has immediate rewards for US weapons manufacturers. This nexus of military strategists and thee military industry is epitomized by the right-wing Centre for Security Policy with its close connections to both military contractors and the Pentagon.  
The Center's director Frank Gaffney, one of the original signatories of the PNAC statement in 1997, rejoiced that his group's ‘peace through strength’ principles have once again found a place in US government. Like the Reagan years, when many of the center's current associates directed US military policy, the present administration includes a large number of members of the Center's National Security Advisory Council.  
An early member of the Center's board, Dick Cheney, is now vice president, and Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld was a recipient of the Center's ‘Keeper of the Flame’ award. For neoconservatives… the culture war was an international one that threatened the entire Judeo-Christian culture. 
One of earliest groups taking this position was the ‘Ethics and Public Policy Center,’ which was established in 1976 ‘to clarify and reinforce the bond between Judeo-Christian moral tradition and the public policy debate over domestic and foreign policy issues.’ 
The Ethics and Public Policy Center, where Elliott Abrams was an associate in the 1990s before he joined the Bush administration, explored the common moral groundthat Jewish and Catholic conservatives shared with the Christian Right. Long a theme in American politics, the idea of America's cultural supremacy and the need to defend it against mounting international attack had by the late 1990s become a powerful theme in the US political debate.  
Neo-conservative historian Samuel Huntington provided theoretical cover for this paranoid sense of cultural supremacy in his influential ‘The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order.’ Former ‘drug czar’ and Education Secretary William J. Bennett, another signatory of the PNAC 1997 statement, has had the most success in making the local-global links in the culture war.  
Together with Jack Kemp, Bennett in 1999 founded Empower America, a right-wing policy group that argues for domestic and foreign policies informed by conservative moral values. Since Sept. 11, Bennett's ‘Empower America,’ together with subsidiary groups, has propagated the Bush administration's own message of a moral and military crusade against evil. 
As part of its campaign to highlight the moral character of Bush's foreign policy, Empower America formed a new group called ‘Americans for Victory Over Terrorism’ (AVOT). In a full-page ad in The New York Times, AVOT chairman Bennett warned: ‘The threats we face are both external and internal’…  
In its pronouncement, AVOT identified US public opinion as the key battleground in the war against America's external and internal threats. ‘Our goal,’ declared AVOT, ‘is to address the present threats so as to eradicate future terrorism and defeat ideologies that support it.’  
Also in the forefront of focusing attention on internal threats has been Lynne Cheney, wife of the vice president and an associate at the American Enterprise Institute, who played a lead role in founding the American Council of Trustees and Alumni (ACTA) that singled out professors deemed not sufficiently patriotic. 
Under the tutelage of neo-conservatives like Elliott Abrams and under the guiding hand of William Bennett, social conservatives, particularly those associated with the Christian Right, have become new internationalists. Looking beyond the culture wars at home, they found new reasons for a rightist internationalism abroad. Building on the Biblical foundations for an apocalyptic showdown in the Middle East, the Christian Right has fully supported the neo-conservative agenda on US-Israel relations.  
In their literature and Internet presence, socially conservative groups like Empower America and the Foundation for the Defense of Democracy place special emphasis on the righteousness of the campaign against the Palestinians by the Likud Party of Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon.  
Other galvanizing issues for social conservatives are the persecution of Christians abroad, especially in Islamic countries and China, sex trafficking and ‘yellow peril’ threat of communist China. As during the Reagan administration, the right-wing think tanks have played a key role in shaping the new policy framework. Especially important has been the neoconservative American Enterprise Institute whose most prominent member of the Bush administration isRichard Perle, the chair of Rumsfeld's Defense Planning Board. 
Perle, a supporter of PNAC, helped establish The Centre for Security Policy and the increasingly influential Jewish Institute for National Security (JINSA). Over the years, AEI has been in the forefront of calling for preemptive military attacks against rogue states and has denounced as ‘appeasement’ all efforts by Washington and its European allies to ‘engage’ North Korea, Iran, or Iraq.  
The Bush administration has embraced virtually all of the policy positions that the AEI has promoted on the Middle East. Coursing through AEI policy analysis, and now through the Bush administration, is a profound belief in the inherent goodness and redemptive mission of the United States, criticism of the moral cowardice of ‘liberals’ and ‘European elites,’ an imperative to support Israel against the ‘implacable hatred’ of Muslims…  
On the editorial pages of the "Weekly Standard" (published by PNAC cofounder William Kristol), The "Wall Street Journal," "National Review," "Commentary," Magazine and The "Washington Times," as well as in the nationally syndicated columns by William Safire, Michael Kelly and Charles Krauthammer, the State Department (particularly its Near East bureau) came under steady attack. But even within the State Department, the new foreign policy radicals had set up camp.  
Over Powell's objections, Bush appointed John Bolton, an ultra-unilateralist ideologue and former vice president of the American Enterprise Institute, as undersecretary of state for arms control and international security. For the most part, the political right led by the neoconservatives has focused on the need for America to assert its military and diplomatic power, a focus underscored by the war on terrorism. 
In marked contrast to the Clinton years, the neoconservative strategists together with the hawks have sidelined the public debate about globalization. Instead of fretting over social and environmental standards in the global economy, the economic focus is on securing US national interests, particularly energy resources, and thereby ensuring continued US economic supremacy…  
This small group of right-wing strategists, ideologues, and operatives in right-wing think tanks, advocacy groups and the news media has captured US foreign and military policy. At issue is not so much that this shift in foreign policy has been engineered by a narrow elite… but rather the implications of this sharp turn to the right… is this show of American supremacy the grand strategy that best serves US national interests and security?… As Americans we will need to decide if we now feel more secure, if our economic and moral interests are better represented now, and if a foreign policy based on extending US supremacy makes us proud to be Americans." 
"The Pentagon is under the control of a hard core Zionist named Richard Perle. The civilian Defence Policy Board actually wields more control over the military establishment than the Defence Secretary or the generals and admirals. There are a number of other Zionists who serve on the board (Kissinger, Cohen, Schlessinger) as well as non-Jewish members who have always supported Israel and the expansion of the ‘War on Terror.’  
The notoriously belligerent Perle, nicknamed the 'The Prince of Darkness,’ is Chairman of the Board. With Perle as Chairman of the Defence Policy Board, Zionist Paul Wolfowitz as Undersecretary of Defence, and Zionist award winner Douglas Feith as Undersecretary of Defence Policy, the Pentagon gang controls 3 of the top 4 civilian leadership positions of America's armed forces. 
Careerists like Condoleeza Rice and Donald Rumsfeld are either under their influence or unwilling to oppose their drive for WW III. The Perle-Wolfowitz-Feith gang represent a fanatical and warmongering ‘government-within-a-government.’ In league with these is… potential 2004 Presidential candidate, Senator Joseph Lieberman."
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