Wednesday, 29 November 2006

The history of antisemitism (4)

Andrew Johnson, the seventeenth President of the United States, was moved to say this of Judah P. Benjamin, the South's Secretary of State, during the Civil War:
"There’s another Jew, that miserable Benjamin! He looks on a country and a government as he would on a suit of old clothes. He sold out the old one; and he would sell out the new if he could in so doing make two or three millions."
Benjamin escaped to France when the war ended badly for the South.

The great German composer, Richard Wagner, (1813-1883) said this in Judaism in Music: (1850)
"With all our speaking and writing in favour of the Jews' emancipation, we always felt instinctively repelled by any actual, operative contact with them... I consider the Jewish race the sworn enemy of man and all that is noble in him. That we Germans in particular will be ruined by them is beyond dispute.""
Which prophecy would come to pass ninety five years later.

On 9 February 1881, the Russian novelist and poet, Fyodor Dostoyevsky, (1821-1881) died.
This is how one Russian writer described his funeral:
"Enormous crowds attended his funeral: men and women from all walks of life; statesmen of high rank and downtrodden prostitutes; illiterate peasants and distinguished men of letters; army officers and learned scientists; credulous priests and incredulous students, they were all there… In that coffin lay a noble and lofty man, a prudent teacher, an inspired prophet whose thoughts, like mountain peaks, were always pointed toward heaven, and who had measured the depths of man's quivering heart with all its struggles, sins, and tempests; its riddles, pains, and sorrows; its unseen tears and burning passions."
In My Paradox, Dostoyevsky, who always identified with the sufferings and hardships of the Rusian peasant, said this:
"Now Jews are becoming landowners and everywhere people write and shout that Jews are draining the soil of Russia; that a Jew, after having invested a certain amount of capital in the purchase of an estate, in order to retrieve the capital plus interest, promptly exhausts all productive forces of the purchased land.

Yet try to say something about this and people will immediately start vociferating about the violation of the principle of economic freedom and civil equality. But what kind of equality is this if we have here an obvious and Talmudic state within the state, above all and in the first place?

If this is not only the exhausting of the soil but also the future exhaustion of our peasant, who having been liberated from the landowners, unquestionably and very soon will be driveninto a much worse slavery of far more pernicious land owners, those same landowners who have already drained the sap out of the peasant in West Russia; those who are now not only purchasing estates and peasants, but have begun to buy liberal opinion, and who continue to do so quite successfully."
In Status in Statu, he said these things:
"They already dominate all international politics, and what will follow, the Jews themselves know full well: their kingdom is coming, their complete empire."
"I know that in the world there is certainly no other people who would be complaining as much about their lot, incessantly, after each step and word of theirs, about their humiliation, their suffering, their martyrdom. One might think that it is not they who are reigning in Europe, who are directing there at least the stock exchanges and, therefore, politics, domestic affairs, the morality of the states."
In The Very Last Word of Civilization, Dostoevsky says:
"The questioning man stands perplexed: Where is truth? Is it possible that the world is still so far from it? When will an end be put to strife? Will men ever get together? What stands in their way?... Where is humaneness?...

Once more the Jew has enthroned himself everywhere. Why, not only has he 'enthroned himself,' but he never ceased to reign!"
In Diary of a Writer, Dostoyevsky continued his condemnation of those who would exploit the Russian peasants:
"Jewry is thriving precisely there where the people are still ignorant, or not free, or economically backward. It is there that Jewry has a champ libre. And instead of raising, by its influence, the level of education, instead of increasing knowledge, generating economic fitness in the native population,instead of this the Jew, wherever he has settled, has still more humiliated and debauched the people; there humaneness was still more debased and the educational level fell still lower; there inescapable, inhuman misery, and with it despair, spread still more disgustingly. Ask the native population in our border regions.

What is propelling the Jew and has been propelling him for centuries? You will receive a unanimous answer: mercilessness. 'He has been prompted so many centuries only by pitilessness to us, only by the thirst for our sweat and blood.'

In truth, the whole activity of the Jews in these border regions of ours consisted of rendering the native population as much as possible inescapably dependent on them, taking advantage of the local laws. They have always managed to be on friendly terms with those upon whom the people were dependent.

Point to any other tribe from among Russian aliens which could rival the Jew by his dreadful influence in this connection! You will find no such tribe. In this respect the Jew preserves all his originality as compared with other Russian aliens, and of course, the reason therefore is that status of statu of his, that spirit of which specifically breathes pitilessness for everything that is not Jew, with disrespect for any people and tribe, for every human creature who is not a Jew."
In Diary of a Writer, Dostoyevsky also predicted, with uncanny accuracy,whatmight happen to the peasant population of Russia if the Jews gained control. This is what he said:
"Now, what if somehow, for some reason, our rural communeshould disintegrate, that commune which is protecting our poor native peasant against so many ills; what if, straightaway, the Jew and his whole kehillahshould fall upon that liberated peasant, so inexperienced, so incapable of resisting temptation, and who up to this time has been guarded precisely by the commune?

Why, of course, instantly this would be his end; his entire property, his whole strength, the very next day would come under the power of the Jew, and there would ensue such an era as can be compared not only with the era of serfdom but even with that of the Tartar yoke...

Now, how would it be if in Russia there were not three million Jews, but three million Russians and there were eighty million Jews? Well, into what would they convert the Russians, and how would they treat them? Would they permit them to acquire equal rights? Would they permit them to worship freely in their midst? Wouldn’t they instead convert them into slaves? Worse than that: wouldn’t they skin them altogether?

Wouldn’t they slaughter the Russians down to the last man, to the point of complete extermination, as they used to do with alien peoples in ancient times, during their ancient history?..Step out of the family of nations and form your own entity, and thou shalt know that henceforth thou art the only one before God; exterminate the rest, or make slaves of them, or exploit them.

Have faith in the conquest of the whole world; adhere to the belief that everything will submit to thee. Loathe strictly everything, and do not have intercourse with anyone in thy mode of living. And even when thou shalt lose the land, thy political individuality, even when thou shalt be dispersed all over the face of the earth, amidst all nations, nevermind, have faith in everything that has been promised thee, once and forever; believe that all this will come to pass, and meanwhile live, loathe, unite, and exploit—and wait, wait".
Dostoevsky was speaking more prophetically than he would ever know. Only 36 years after his death, when the Tsar’s government was weakened by WWI, the Jews finally succeeded in bringing off a successful armed revolution against the traditional Russian government and established in its place the greatest tyranny that the world had yet seen.

No sooner had the Jews secured their political powers than they turned viciously on the Russian and Ukranian Christian peasantry. It is estimated that the system imposed upon the Russian peoples by Lenin, Stalin, Trotsky, Zionviev Kamenev, Sverdlov, Kaganovich et al. cost around 60,000,000 lives in the countries of eastern Europ ewhere Judaic rule held sway. These dead do not include those that perished in WWII.

Of the top Bolsheviks mentioned above, only Lenin (whose grandfather was Jewish)and the Georgian Asiatic, Joseph Stalin, were not Jews.

In a letter addressed to Prime Minister, William Gladstone, dated 19 November 1869, Queen Victoria said this:
"It is not only the feeling of which I cannot divest myself, against making a person of Jewish religion a peer, but I cannot think that one who owes his great wealth to contracts with foreign governments for loans or to successful speculation the stock exchange can fairly claim a British peerage.

However high Sir L. Rothschild may stand personally in public estimation, this seems to be none the less a species of gambling on a gigantic scale and far removed from that legitimate trading which I am delighted to honor, in which men have raised themselves by patient industry and unswerving probity to positions of wealth and influence."
In The Antichrist, the German philosopher and poet, Friedrich Nietzsche, (1844-1900) said:
"The Jews... have entrenched themselves within all the provisos under which a people can survive intact, or has been allowed to survive. Out of their own consciousness they have evolved a set of ideas in opposition to all natural conditions of living, one by one they have taken religion, culture, morality, history, and psychology, and converted them irreparably into a contradiction of their natural meaning.

We meet with the same phenomenon elsewhere, but all disjointed, a mere copy, for the Christian church lacks all claim to originality as compared with the 'holy race'…

Because of their capacity for distortion, the Jews are the most fateful people in human history. In the course of their operations they have hoodwinked mankind so much that, even to this day, the Christian can feel anti-Semitic without realizing that he himself is the logical consequence of Judaism.

In my 'Genealogy of Morals', I give the first psychological explanation of the distinction between a noble morality and a morality of resentment; the latter being merely a negation of the former and this latter is the Jewish-Christian morality through and through!

In order to be able to say no to life on the up-grade, to success, power, and beauty, and self-affirmation on earth, it was necessary for the instinct of resentment, or for the genius of resentment, to discover another world, one from which that affirmation of life could be regarded as evil and reprehensible.

Psychologically considered, the Jews are a people very hard to suppress, who when they had to face impossible surroundings, deliberately selected the part of decadence, and made their choice with a profound worldly wisdom in order to preserve themselves intact. I do not mean that the Jews were overcome by decadence, but that they saw in it a method by which they could assert themselves against the world.

The Jews are the opposite of decadent, they have simply been obliged to take on the part, so much so that with an incredible degree of histrionic genius, they have managed to place themselves in control of all decadent movements in order to make themselves stronger than the assertive forces of life.

The kind of man who seeks power under Judaism or Christianity uses decadence as no more than a means to an end. This kind of fellow has a real interest in making people sick, and in upsetting the ideas of 'good' and 'evil' 'true' and 'false' in a way which is dangerous to life and a slander against this world in which we live...

Here we are among Jews... the elevation of deceit in attitude and phrase to the status of an art - is not any accident due to the exceptional talents of any one individual. It is a racial matter. In the formulation of Christianity, the art of concocting holy lies, which is the essence of Jewishness, after many centuries of earnest apprenticeship and practice in Judea, has reached technical perfection...

Little super-Jews, fit only for the madhouse, reversed all values to suit themselves... Paul, the Jew, the eternal and perfect Jew, Paul the genius, realized that, by means of the small sectarian Christian movement which had broken away from Judaism, a world conflagration could be kindled. He realized that, by means of 'God on the Cross' everything underhand, seditious, and a product of rebellious intrigues within the empire, might be welded together into one immense power.'For salvation is of the Jews'."
The German Prince, Otto von Bismarck, (1815-1898) was the creator and first Chancellor of the German Empire.

Here, Bismarck opines on the relationship between Abraham Lincoln and the Rothschilds:
"The division of the United States into two federations of equal force was decided long before the Civil War by the High Financial Power of Europe. These bankers were afraid that the United States, if they remained in one block and as one nation, would attain economical and financial independence, which would upset their financial domination over the world.

The voice of the Rothschilds predominated. They foresaw tremendous booty if they could substitute two feeble democracies, indebted to the Jewish financiers, to the vigorous republic, confident and self-providing. Therefore, they started their emissaries in order to exploit the question of slavery and thus to dig an abyss between the two parts of the republic. Lincoln never suspected these underground machinations. He was anti-slavery, and he was elected as such. But his character prevented him from being the man of one party.

When he had affairs in his hands, he perceived that these sinister financiers of Europe, the Rothschilds, wished to make him the executor of their designs. They made the rupture between the North and the South imminent!

The masters of finance in Europe made this rupture definitive in order to exploit it to the utmost. Lincoln's personality surprised them: they thought to easily dupe the candidate woodcutter. But Lincoln read their plots and soon understood that the South was not the worst foe, but the Jewish financiers.

He did not confide his apprehensions; he watched the gestures of the Hidden Hand; he did not wish to expose publicly the questions which disconcert the ignorant masses. He decided to eliminate the international bankers, by establishing a system of loans, allowing the states to borrow directly from the people without intermediary. He did not study financial questions, but his robust good sense revealed to him that the source of any wealth resides in the work and economy of the nation. He opposed emissions through the international financiers.

He obtained from the Congress the right to borrow from the people by selling to it the bonds of the states. The local banks were only too glad to help such a system. And the government and the nation escaped the plots of foreign financiers. They understood at once that the United States would escape their grip. The death of Lincoln was resolved upon. Nothing is easier than to find a fanatic to strike.

The death of Lincoln was a disaster for Christendom. There was no man in the United States great enough to wear his boots. And Israel went anew to garner the riches of the world. I fear that Jewish banks with their craftiness and tortuous tricks will entirely control the exuberant riches of America and will use it to systematically corrupt modern civilization. The Jews will not hesitate to plunge the whole of Christendom into wars and chaos in order that 'the earth should become the inheritance of Israel'."
Bismarck also said this:
"I shall give an example in which is given an entire history of relations between Christians and Jews. I know of a district, there are peasants, they cannot claim anything as their own on their plot of land. From their bed to their oven-fork, everything belongs to the Jew.

Cattle in their stable, grain in their fields and in their barns, everything belongs to the Jews. Yet the farmer pays for everything its rent. And the Jew sells bread, seeds, corn for cattle to the peasants in a butchery way. I have never heard of a similar Christian usury."
Some years before the British diplomat, writer and explorer, Sir Richard Burton (1829-1890) became Consul in Damascus, a Catholic priest was, allegedly, murdered in a Jewish ritual.

Burton's investigations satisfied him that such killings were actually performed by certain sects of Jews and, as a consequence, he wrote The Jew, The Gypsy and El Islam. (1873) In this book he says:

"Mohammed was assassinated by a Jewess who poisoned his food."
"Whenever in these days we hear of a new 'religion' having been born into the world, we may determine, à priori, that it is more Jewish than its predecessors."
"The Jew’s hand was ever, like Ishmael’s, against every man but those belonging to the Synagogue. His fierce passions and fiendish cunning, combined with abnormal powers of intellect, with intense vitality, and with a persistency of purpose which the world has rarely seen, and whetted moreover by a keen thirst for blood engendered by defeat and subjection, combined to make him the deadly enemy of all mankind, whilst his unsocial and iniquitous Oral Law contributed to inflame his wild lust of self, and to justify the crimes suggested by spite and superstition."
"The most important and pregnant tenet of modern Jewish belief is that the Ger, or stranger, in fact all those who do not belong to their religion, are brute beasts, having no more rights than the fauna of the field."
"I have long known this to be the Key of International Politics; and it shows that what would be Murder to an non-Jew is only Slaughter to a Talmudic Jew."
"The Talmud declares that there are two kinds of blood pleasing to the Lord, viz: (1) that of the Paschal holocaust; (the crucifixion of Jesus) (2) that of circumcision."
"I suppose every nation has the God it deserves and admires. What sort of a people is this whose God finds the blood obtained from mutilations of human genital organs as 'pleasing'?"
"Obviously such cruel and vindictive teaching... must bear fruit in crime and atrocities." "Actually, of course, the epithet of ‘anti-Semitism’ is meaningless and ridiculous when applied to Mohammed, for the Arabs are true representatives of this obsolete 19th century racial categorization, while Jews are not."
Burton also made this eerie prediction in his book:
"The Magnate sees all his rich estates... passing out of his own hands, and contributing to swell the bottomless pocket of the Jewish usurer...

If this system of legal robbery be allowed to pass a certain point, which, by-the-bye, is not far distant, the Jews must prepare themselves for another disaster right worthy of the Middle Ages. And they will have deserved it."
Count Leo Tolstoy, (1828-1910) said this in the preface to The Evangelists:

"Whenever I set myself to study Christianity, I find thrown up against this pure fountain of life a pile of impurities and filth that has mixed itself in, against all justice. Joined to the sublime Christian truths, I find this foreign, formless doctime, a Hebraic doctrine."
In The Kreutzer Sonata, he says:
"See the Jews: with their power of money, they avenge their subjection...'Ah! you wish us to be only merchants? All right; remaining merchants, we will get possession of you,' say the Jews."
In The Slavery of Our Times, Tolstoy said this:
"Where there is a man who does not labor because another is compelled to work for him, there slavery is."
The renowned British historian and educational reformer, Goldwin Smith, (1823-1910) was Regius Professor of modern history at Oxford from 1858 until he left for America in 1868.

He was also Professor of English literature and Constitutional History at Cornell University from 1868 until 1871. Smith was critical of Disraeli's imperialist ambitions and insisted that Britain's foreign policy benefited Jewish, not British, interests. Disraeli was, himself, Jewish) In his seminal 1881 essay, The Jewish Question, the opening passages inform us thus:
"Jewish ascendancy and the anti-Semitic movement provoked by it form an important feature of the European situation, and are beginning to excite attention in America. Mr. Arnold White, Baron Hirsch's commissioner, says, in a plea for the Russian Jews ('The Truth about the Russian Jew,' Contemporary Review, May 1892), that 'almost without exception the press throughout Europe is in Jewish hands, and is largely produced by Jewish brains;' that 'international finance is captive to Jewish energy and skill;' that in England the fall of the Barings has left the house of Rothschild alone in its supremacy; and that in every line the Jews are fast becoming our masters.

Wind and tide, in a money-loving age, are in favor of the financial race. At the same time the anti-Semitic movement gains ground. From Russia, Germany, Austria, and the Danubian Principalities, it spreads to the Ionian Islands; it has broken out in France; symptoms of it have appeared even in the United States. Yet there is a persistent misapprehension of the real nature of the agitation. It is assumed that the quarrel is religious.

The anti-Semites are supposed to be a party of fanatics renewing the persecutions to which the Jews were exposed on account of their faith in the dark ages, and every one who, handling the question critically, fails to show undivided sympathy with the Israelites is set down as a religious persecutor. The Jews naturally foster this impression, and, as Mr. Arnold White tells us, the press of Europe is in their hands.

Pogroms in Russia

In 1880, anti-Semitic disturbances broke out in Russia. A narrative of them entitled 'The Persecution of the Jews in Russia,' was put forth (in 1881) by the Jewish community in England as an appeal to the British heart. In that narrative the Russian Christians were charged with having committed the most fiendish atrocities on the most enormous scale. A tract of country equal in area to the British Islands and France combined had, it was averred, been the scene of horrors theretofore perpetrated only in times of war.

Men had been ruthlessly murdered, tender infants had been dashed on the stones or roasted alive in their own homes, married women had been made the prey of a brutal lust which had in many cases caused their death, and young girls had been violated in sight of their relatives by soldiers who should have been guardians of their honor. Whole streets inhabited by Jews had been razed, and the Jewish quarters of towns had been systematically fired. 
In one place, Elizabethgrad [or Elizavetgrad, now Kirovohrad, Ukraine], 30 Jewesses at once had been outraged, two young girls in dread of violation had thrown themselves from the windows, and an old man, who was attempting to save his daughter from a fate worse than death, had been flung from the roof, while 20 soldiers proceeded to work their will on the maiden. This was a specimen of atrocities which had been committed over the whole area.

The most atrocious charge of all was that against the Christian women of Russia, who were accused of assisting their friends to violate the Jewesses by holding the victims down, their motive being, as the manifesto suggests, jealousy of the superiority of the Jewesses in dress. The government was charged with criminal sympathy, the local authorities generally with criminal inaction, and some of the troops with active participation.

The British heart responded to the appeal. Great public meetings were held, at one of which the Archbishop of Canterbury, with a Roman Cardinal, as the representative of religious liberty in general, and especially of opposition to Jew-burning, at his side, denounced the persecuting bigotry of the Russian Christians. Indignant addresses were largely signed. Russia was accused of re-enacting the worst crimes of the Middle Ages. It was taken for granted on all sides that religious fanaticism was the cause of the riots.

Exaggerated Accounts

Russia, as usual, was silent. But the British government directed its consuls at the different points to report upon the facts. The reports composed two Blue Books, in which, as very few probably took the pains to look into them, the unpopular truth lies buried (Correspondence Respecting the Treatment of Jews in Russia, Nos. 1 and 2, 1882, 1883).

Those who did read them learned, in the first place, that though the riots were deplorable and criminal, the Jewish account was in most cases exaggerated, and in some to an extravagant extent. The damage to Jewish property at Odessa, rated in the Jewish account at 1,137,381 rubles, or, according to their higher estimates, 3,000,000 rubles, was rated, Consul-General Stanley tells us, by a respectable Jew on the spot at 50,000 rubles, while the Consul-General himself rates it at 20,000. At Elizabethgrad, instead of whole streets being razed to the ground, only one hut had been unroofed. It appeared that few Jews, if any, had been intentionally killed, though some died of injuries received in the riots.

There were conflicts between the Jews who defended their houses and the rioters. The outrages on women, by which public indignation in England had been most fiercely aroused, and of which, according to the Jewish accounts, there had been a frightful number, no less than 30 in one place and 25 in another, appeared, after careful inquiries by the consuls, to have been very rare. This is the more remarkable because the riots commonly began with the sacking of the gin shops, which were kept by the Jews, so that the passions of the mob must have been inflamed by drink. 
The horrible charge brought in the Jewish manifesto against the Russian women, of having incited men to outrage Jewesses and held the Jewesses down, is found to be utterly baseless. The charge of roasting children alive also falls to the ground. So does the charge of violating a Jew's wife and then setting fire to his house. 
The Jewish manifesto states that a Jewish innkeeper was cooped in one of his own barrels and cast into the Dnieper. This turns out to be a fable, the village which was the alleged scene of it being ten miles from the Dnieper and near no other river of consequence.

The Russian peasant, Christian though he may be, is entitled to justice. As a rule, while ignorant and often intemperate, he is good-natured. There was much brutality in his riot, but fiendish atrocity there was not, and if he struck savagely, perhaps he had suffered long. For the belief that the mob was 'doing the will of the Tsar,' in other words, that the government was at the bottom of the rising, there does not appear to have been a shadow of foundation.

The action of the authorities was not in all cases equally prompt. In some cases it was culpably slack. At Warsaw the commandant held back, though as Lord Granville, the British ambassador, bears witness, his motive for hesitation was humanity. But many of the rioters were shot down or bayoneted by the troops, hundreds were flogged, some were imprisoned, and some were sent to Siberia.

That any of the military took part in the riots seems to be a fiction. It was not likely that the Russian government, menaced as it is by revolutionary conspiracy, would encourage insurrection. People of the upper class, who fancied that in the agitation they saw the work of Socialists, though they might dislike the Jews, would hardly sympathize with the rioters.

Efforts were made by the government to restore Jewish property, and handsome sums were subscribed for the relief of the sufferers. Yet those who, while they heartily condemned outrage, were willing to accept proof that the Christian men and women of Russia had not behaved like demons, were saluted as modern counterparts of Haman by an eminent Rabbi, who, if the objects of his strictures had cared to retort, might have been asked whether the crucifixion of Haman's ten sons and the slaughter of 75,000 of the enemies of Israel in one day, which, after the lapse of so many centuries, the feast of Purim still joyously commemorates, were not horrors as great as any which have been shown to have actually occurred at Odessa or Elizabethgrad.

Cause of the Troubles

The most important part of the evidence given in the consuls' reports, however, is that which relates to the cause of the troubles. At Warsaw, where the people are Roman Catholics, there appears to have been a certain amount of passive sympathy with the insurgents on religious grounds. But everywhere else the concurrent testimony of the consuls is that the source of the agitation was economical and social, not religious.

Bitterness produced by the exactions of the Jew, envy of his wealth, irritation at the display of it in such things as the fine dresses of his women, jealousy of his ascendancy, combined in the lowest of the mob with the love of plunder, were the motives of the people for attacking him, not hatred of his faith.

Vice-Consul Wagstaff, who seems to have paid particular attention to the question and made the most careful inquiry, after paying a tribute to the sober, laborious, thrifty character and the superior intelligence of the Jew, and ascribing to these his increasing monopoly of commerce, proceeds (in Correspondence Respecting the Treatment of Jews in Russia, No. 1, 1882, pp. 11, 12):
'It is chiefly as brokers or middlemen that the Jews are so prominent. Seldom a business transaction of any kind takes place without their intervention, and from both sides they receive compensation. To enumerate some of their other occupations, constantly denounced by the public: they are the principal dealers in spirits; keepers of 'vodka' (drinking) shops and houses of ill-fame; receivers of stolen goods; illegal pawnbrokers and usurers.

A branch they also succeed in is as government contractors. With their knowledge of handling money, they collude with unscrupulous officials in defrauding the State to vast amounts annually. In fact, the malpractices of some of the Jewish community have a bad influence on those whom they come in contact with.

It must, however, be said that there are many well educated, highly respectable, and honorable Jews in Russia, but they form a small minority. This class is not treated upon in this paper. They thoroughly condemn the occupations of their lower brethren, and one of the results of the late disturbances is noticed in the movement at present amongst the Jews. They themselves acknowledge the abuses practised by some of their own members, and suggest remedial measures to allay the irritation existing among the working classes."
Smith also says this:
"The Jew alone regard his race as superior to humanity, and looks forward not to its ultimate union with other races, but to its triumph over them all and to its final ascendancy under the leadership of a tribal Messiah."
Go here to view the rest of Winston Smith's The Jewish Question.

The British Marxist socialist, H.M. Hyndman (1842-1921) founded the Democratic Federation in 1881.

This organisation changed its name to the Social-Democratic Federation in 1884, to the Social-Democratic Party in 1907 and effectively became the British Socialist Party in 1911.

Throughout his political career Hyndman considered himself to be a Marxist, though both Marx and Engels were contemptuous of him. It was perhaps the crowning irony of Hyndman's life that he should have continued to describe himself as a disciple of Marx, who was Jewish, when his attitude to the Jews as a group became less and less ambiguous and more and more openly critical.

In 1881, Hyndman's essay, The Dawn of a Revolutionary Epoch appeared in the January edition of Nineteenth Century Magazine. This said:
"The influence of the Jews at the present time is more noticeable than ever ... They are at the head of European capitalists ... In politics many Jews are in the front rank. The press in more than one European capital is almost wholly in their hands. The Rothschilds are but the leading name among a whole series of capitalists ...

But while on one hand the Jews are thus beyond dispute the leaders of the plutocracy of Europe ... another section of the same race form the leaders of that revolutionary propaganda which is making way against that very capitalist class represented by their own fellow Jews.

Jews-more than any other men-have held forth against those who make their living not by producing value but by trading on the differences of value; they at this moment are acting as the leaders in the revolutionary movement which I have endeavored to trace.

Surely we have here a very strange phenomenon ... Those, therefore, who are accustomed to look upon all Jews as essentially practical and conservative, as certain, too, to enlist on the side of the prevailing social system, will be obliged to reconsider their conclusions. But the whole subject of the bad and good effects of Jewish influence on European social conditions is worthy of a more thorough investigation than can be undertaken here."
Hyndman condemned the Jameson raid of 1895 as '... a piratical expedition bankrolled by the most loathsome set of Jew capitalists and Christian financiers.'

When the Boer War finally broke out, he described it as 'the Jews War' and an 'abominable war on behalf of German Jew mineowners and other international interlopers.'

At a London meeting in 1900 he spoke so forcefully of the 'Jewish International' that a motion of censure was tabled for the forthcoming party conference.Hyndman was disturbed by the election to the Federation's executive in 1900 of Theodore Rothstein, a Jewish emigre from Russia.

It was Rothstein and Zelda Kahan, who was also of Russian-Jewish origin, who led the opposition to Hyndman's growing mistrust of German ambitions and the support given to them by German-Jewish socialists.

During WWI, Hyndman got hold of a list of Foreign Office employees which included Rothstein's name. He said of this discovery:
"What was my amazement and horror to find among them the name of Th. Rothstein, a Russian German Jew, who has been working here for years in and out of the Socialist movement ... for and on behalf of Germany."
In 1911 the transformation of the SDP into the BSP with added elements who had left the Independent Labour Party, gave Zelda Kahan and her supporters a majority on the new executive in favor of disarmament. Hyndman threatened to resign while one of his supporters, Victor Fisher, actually did so, denouncing Kahan and Rothstein as 'comrades alien in blood and race.'

Hyndman’s hold on the party weakened when a member of the executive who supported the war volunteered for military service,to bereplaced byanother Russian Jew a Mr. J. Feinberg. Hyndman's supporters duly criticised 'the pro-German attitude of several Russo-Jewish refugees.'

Hyndman was sympathetic to Kerensky, the Russian Socialist Prime Minister, and the social revolutionaries who wanted to pursue the war, but bitterly opposed to the Bolsheviks. He later denounced Lenin as 'a communist Ivan the Terrible.'

He described the Bolshevik regime as 'autocratic, cruel and butcherly to the last degree.'

In May 1917, Hyndman attacked Karl Marx's grandson, Jean Longuet, the leading pacifist in the French Socialist Party and concluded:
"Of late the Jewish blood in him had been manifesting itself chiefly in love for intrigue."
In February 1883, The Jewish World featured an article titled, The Kingship of Christ and the Conversion of the Jewish Nation.

In this article the Jewish plan for the world was laid out for all to see. This is what was said:

"The dispersion of the Jews has rendered them a cosmopolitan people. They are the only cosmopolitan people, and in this capacity must act, and are acting, as a solvent of national and racial differences.

The great Ideal of Judaism is not that Jews shall be allowed to flock together one day in some hole-and-corner fashion, for, if not tribal, at any rate separatist objects; but that the whole world shall be imbued with Jewish teachings, and that in a Universal Brotherhood of Nations, a great Judaism, in fact, all the separate races and religions shall disappear."
In L’Histoire et les Histores dans la Bible, Monsignor Landrieux, the Bishop of Dijon, was moved to say:
"For the Talmudists, the Jewish race alone constitutes humanity, the non-Jews are not human beings. They are a purely animal nature. They have no rights. The moral laws which regulate the mutual relations of men, the Ten Commandments, are not of obligation in their regard."
The leading French Socialist, Alphonse de Toussanel (1833-1885) had this to say about the Jews in the Preface to Les Juifs, rois de l'epoque, which was first published the year after Toussanel's death.

"I call as the people with that contemptuous name of Jew all those who traffic in money, all unproductive parasites living off the substance and labor of others. Jew, usurer and trader are all synonyms for me. That horde of usurers and lepers, a burden against all mankind since the dawn of the ages and which drags its hatred against other peoples and its incorrigible haughtiness all over the globe...

The people of Satan, not the people of God; and the God of the Jewish people is no other indeed than Satan... Europe is entailed to the domination of Israel. This universal dominion, of which so many conquerors have dreamed, the Jews have in their hands. The God of Judah has kept his word to the prophets and has given victory to the sons of the Maccabees. Jerusalem has imposed tribute on all the empires."
The French social reformer Gustave Tridon (1841-1871) said this in Du Molochisme Juif:

"The Jew is the stain in the picture of civilization, the bad genius of the earth. His gifts are pests. To fight Semitic ideas is the duty of the Aryan race."
In his Index Expurgatrius of 1887, Pope Leo XXIII (1810-1903) decreed:
"Concerning The Talmud and other Jewish books... Although in the Index issued by Pope Pius IV, the Jewish Talmud with all its glossaries, annotations, interpretations and expositions were prohibited; but if published without the name Talmud and without its vile calumnies against the Christian religion they could be tolerated; however, Our Holy Lord Pope Clement VIII in his constitution against impious writings and Jewish books, published in Rome in the year of Our Lord 1592... proscribed and condemned them.

It was not his intention thereby to permit or tolerate them even under the above conditions, for he expressly and specifically stated and willed, that the impious Talmudic Cabalistic and other nefarious books of the Jews be entirely condemned and that they must remain always condemned and prohibited, and that his Constitution about these books must be perpetually and inviolably observe...

Hence from all we have hitherto said, it is clear beloved Catholics that we cannot approve the opinions which some comprise under the head of Americanism".
The journal, La Civilta Cattolica, was first published by the Jesuits in 1880 and was, from that time on, the informal newspaper of the Vatican.

Every article was cleared before publication by the papal secretariat of state. On 23 October 1890, during Leo's papacy, the following article was published:

"The nineteenth century will close upon Europe, leaving it in the grips of a very sad question, from which, in the twentieth century, there will possibly be such calamitous consequences that they will cause Europe to bring it to an end by a definitive resolution. We mean the unhappy so-called Semitic question, which is better called the Jewish question, and intimately linked to the economic, moral, political, and religious conditions of Europe's Christianity.

How urgent it is at present and how much it is upsetting the major nations becomes evident from the collective outcry against the invasion of the Israelites into every sector of public and social life; from the associations having formed in France, Austria, Germany, England, Russia, Romania, and elsewhere in order to stop it; from the outcrys which are beginning to make themselves heard within the parliaments; finally, from the great number of newspapers, books, and pamphlets continuously appearing in order to point out the necessity of stopping and combating the spread of this plague, and stressing its most pernicious consequences...

We think that it fully deserves to be considered in Italy where Judaism rules as lord but where, in spite of the rich material available, still no one has emerged to write a treatise that could compete with the respective one of Edouard Drumont...

The Jewish question of our time doesn't differ greatly from the one which affected the Christian peoples of the Middle Ages. In a foolish way it is said to arise from hatred towards the Jewish tribe. Mosaism in itself couldn't become an object of hate for Christians, since, until the coming of Christ, it was the only true religion... But the Judaism of the centuries turned its back on the Mosaic law, replacing it with the Talmud, the very quintessence of Pharisaism...

What the Christian nations despise in Talmudism is not so much its virtually non-existent theological element, but rather, its morals, which are at variance with the most elementary principles of natural ethics. Nor does the question originate in aversion for a race, as apparently expressed by the improper adjective Semitic that is attached to it...

We take the designation Semitic whenever applied to the Jewish question, and Semitism, whenever applied to Judaism, to be inappropriate because in exceeding the scope of their meaning… they produce a false concept. Nevertheless, aversion to the tribe adds to it and constitutes one of the chapters of the question, the religious codex of the Talmud being another one.

Moreover, the Jewish race, in as far as it is a nation, though as such without a fixed fatherland and without a political organism, lives dispersed among the nations, perhaps not without getting mixed with them here and there, but keeping aloof from them in all things which might develop into social union, and regarding them as enemies or even as victims fallen to its greediness.

Thus it is that the great Israelite family, dispersed among the peoples of the world, forms a foreign nation within the nations in which it resides, and the sworn enemy of their prosperity, since the cardinal point of Talmudism is the oppression and spoliation of the very peoples who extend hospitality to its disciples. Because of which St. Paul, at the end of his days, characterized the Jews as displeasing God and hostile to all men…

And that the sinister codex of the Talmud… commands hatred of all men who don't have Jewish blood, and especially Chistians, and makes it licit to spoliate and ill-treat them like noxious beasts, isn't any longer one of its doctrinal points that can be denied...

The most careful and most serious study of the Mishna, which is the Talmud's text, and the Gemara, which is its annotation, besides the study of several rabbis, including the most notable ones of past and present times, that does away with any doubt whatsoever."
 In July 1896, The London Standard reported the words of Pope Leo thus:
"Freemasonry and the money of the Jews, and that tyrannical Liberalism which is supported, animated, and kept up by that money, are the pernicious and dangerous foes which infect the good-natured Hungarian people."
The British socialist, Beatrice Potter, who later became Mrs. Sidney Webb, wrote a forceful series of articles on Jewish oppression of English needle-trades workers in clothing sweatshops.

Interestingly, the Webbs would, in later life, become voluble apologists for Jewish Bolshevism. This what Potter said in 1888, when she was prepared to be critical of Jewish misbehaviour:
"The art of the English tailor has been exchanged for the perfect mechanism of Jewish organization... The love of profit as distinct from other forms of money-earning is the strongest impelling motive of the Jewish race...They are deficient in social morality." (Nineteentb Century Magazine)
In a treatise entitled, Industrial Democracy, the Webbs refer to the Jews in England as 'a constant influence for degradation.'

In 1929, Potter’s husband was the Labour Government’s Colonial Secretary. Following serious rioting in Palestine, in which more than two hundred and forty people were killed and nearly six hundred injured, he was subjected to intense pressure from the Zionist lobby in Britain. In a diary entry of 2 September 1929, Beatrice wrote:
"Roused by the tragic happenings in Palestine there have buzzed around him Jews and admirers of Jews, great and small, in a state of violent grief and agitation demanding revenge and compensation."
The Scottish anthropologist, Sir James George Frazer (1854-1941) examined the importance of magic, religion, and science to the development of human thought in his 1890 work, The Golden Bough.

In this book, Frazer said:
"Some of the old laws of Israel are clearly savage taboos of a familiar type thinly disguised as commands of the Deity."
Charles Taze Russell was the founder of the Jehovah’s Witnesses.

In an 1891 letter to Baron Rothschild, mailed from Palestine, outlining possible courses of action that could be taken to establish the Jews in Palestine.
"What is needed here, therefore, next to water and cleanliness, is a good government which will protect the poor from the ravenous and the wealthy. Banking institutions on sound bases, and doing business honorably, are also greatly needed. May the God of Jacob direct you, my dear Sir, and all interested with you in the deliverance and prosperity of Israel, and blessed will they be who, to any extent, yield themselves as his servants in fulfilling his will as predicted."
On 1 July 1897, The Watchtower, magazine of the Jehovah’s Witnesses, said this:
"As the hour draws near, indicated by the prophetic hands of the great clock of the ages, when ‘Gentile Times,’ shall end and God's Kingdom shall take control of earth's affairs, with the natural seed of Abraham as its earthly representatives, in the Land promised to Abraham, every intelligent student of prophecy naturally watches the events bearing upon the promised land and the covenant people.

It is just about a year since Dr. T. Herzl, a learned Hebrew of Vienna, published his book advocating the foundation of a Jewish State, in Palestine, the old homestead, as the only practical solution of the 'Jewish question.'

His views, now known as 'Zionism, have been taken up by leading Jews and Jewish journals the world over, and while some opposition has been aroused it is wonderful how general is the Jewish sentiment in favor of the project…

Delegates representing Jewish societies in all parts of the world have already been chosen, to meet August 25th in the city of Munich, Germany, to consider the most practical steps to be taken for the attainment of the aims of Zionism...

When in 1878 we pointed out that according to prophecy the set time for the return of divine favor to Israel was then due to begin, and that the beginning was in the putting of Egypt and Palestine measurably under British protection by the Berlin Conference, the idea was scouted by many. When we declared that the return of Israelites to Palestine was the next step, the Jews themselves scoffed, declaring that to be an absurdity: that the Jew in Germany was a German, in England an Englishman and in the United States an American, and so elsewhere the world over.

When the Russian persecution drove thousands to seek other homes, Palestine was spurned as a barren land. Baron Hirsch, the German millionaire, started with lavish expenditure a new land of promise in Argentina, South America; and wealthy American Hebrews helped their brethren by thousands to the United States. But some of the poorest Russian Jews looked longingly to Palestine and went thither, to find the land dry and barren enough.

However, for these God raised up friends in Sir Moses Montefiore and Baron Rothschild who, seeing their destitution, pitied them and started Industrial Schools and Experimental Gardens for their instruction, hospitals for the sick, etc.

Then came the decree of the Sultan that no more Jews be permitted to settle in Palestine; and shortly the Russian persecution abated, and a few years of quiet followed in which affairs have been developing and the Jews have learned certain lessons.

(1) The Argentine colony, backed by millions and under seemingly most favorable conditions, has not been a success but a great failure, financially and every way. The Jews colonized there are dissatisfied.

(2) The Jews brought to the United States have succeeded only fairly well.

(3) The Jews who went to 'barren' Palestine have prospered phenomenally. As if by magic the land became more fruitful and happy, and gives evidence of a permanent revival…

(4) Seeing this trend of events with Israel, we look in another direction to see in what way the Lord will open the gates to permit their return. And as we can now see a providence and blessing in the retarding of their emigration for a time, until the divine favor upon the land should center upon it the interest of all Jews, we shall expect ere long to see the doors opened wide, and that many not only of the poor, but also of the rich of Israel will seek Palestine as a home.

We do not expect, however, as the Zionists do, that they will succeed speedily in organizing an independent Jewish state. This cannot be until the full end of Gentile Times, in the end of A.D. 1914. Turkey still rules over Palestine, and her success in the war with Greece has emboldened her to feel a greater independencethan she has felt for nearly a century. She is concentrating troops in Europe from her Asiatic provinces, and the great powers fear a war, while all are striving for peace…

Various jealousies and differences of interest hinder the great powers of Europe from uniting determinedly on any policy respecting Turkey. Austria would take the side of Turkey rather than permit Russia to gain too much by absorbing it. Russia would take sides with Turkey rather than let Austria absorb it, etc., etc.

There are not lacking other sources of European complication which some consider much more dangerous to peace. For instance, the German Emperor is credited with desiring to form a European combination against Great Britain, to hinder further extension of her empire, if not to reduce it.

English journals have for some months been urging for a larger and more efficient British army, to repel feared foes. The balance of power is held by France, and British statesmen are alarmed at the growing intimacy between France and Germany. It is even claimed by some writers that the volatile French admire in Emperor William II. the very qualities of show and bombast and autocracy which Englishmen and Americans consider to be his weaknesses…

Great Britain has able statesmen who doubtless will guard her interests and conciliate France and Russia. However, we see various national complications possible, any one of which would be tolerably certain to affect the future of Palestine and open its gates to the natural seed of Abraham, preparatory to its becoming the Capital of the world.

But whether it comes peaceably or by war, we expect Palestine to be open to Israel in less than five years. Nor do we expect that any war that might occur would be the predicted great turmoil that will wreck the present social order."
Thus did organisation founded by the ardent Zionist, C. T. Russell, whom some have suggested was a secret Jew himself, predict a war between the great powers that would enable the Jews to return to Israel.

The Watchtower makes it very evident in the article above that, in 1897, the position of the Jehovah's Witness ought to be, if war was what it would take to re-establish the Jews in Israel, so be it. Creepy, huh?

The New York Tribune of 27 September 1891, informed us thus:
"There must be some other cause than their religion which makes these people dreaded as permanent inhabitants by every country to which they come."
The American journalist, Poultney Bigelow, (1855-1954) was one of the few who dared to buck the well-orchestrated ‘news’ campaign accusing the Tsarist government of carrying out pogroms and a campaign of ethnic cleansing against the Jews of Russia.

In his essay, The Russian and His Jew, reported in the January 1894 issue of Harper’s Monthly Magazine, he said:
"The Russian knows his Jew better than we know him, and is therefore better qualified to legislate on the subject... There are many patriotic and humane Russians who have given it to me as their deliberate opinion that the Russian peasant would be better off to-day had he never been emancipated.

He is dreamy, good-natured, unpractical and very ignorant. When he is hard-pressed for money, it is only too easy for him to accept the loan which the accomodating (Jewish) tavernkeeper offers him... He sends, of course, the produce of his farm to the Jew, who acts as broker for him, and reserves his commission, and what he is pleased to consider the interest on his money; and by some mysterious method of calculation, the peasant is always the debtor, and the Jew always happy to accomodate him still further on the same terms".
The historian, Houston Stewart Chamberlain, (1855-1927) was the son-in-law of Richard Wagner.

The following quote can be found on page 337 of Foundations of the Nineteenth Century, volume 1.
"I have searched through a whole library of Jewish books in the expectation of finding - naturally not belief in the Divinity of Christ, nor the idea of redemption, but the purely human feeling for the greatness of suffering Saviour - but in vain. A Jew who feels that, is, in fact, no longer a Jew, but a denier of Judiasm.

And while we find, even in Mohammed’s Koran, at least a vague conception of the importance of Christ and profound reverence for His personality, a cultured leading Jew of the nineteenth century (Graetz) calls Christ, 'the new birth with the death mask,’ which inflicted new and painful wounds upon the Jewish people; he cannot see anything else in Him...

In a book, republished in 1880, by a Spanish Jew, (Mose de Leon) Jesus Christ is called a ‘dead dog’ that lies ‘buried in a dunghill.’ Besides, the Jews have taken care to issue in the latter part of the nineteens century several editions (naturally in Hebrew) of the so-called ‘censured passages’ from the Talmud, those passages usually omitted in which Christ is exposed to our scorn and hatred as a ‘fool,’ ‘sorcerer,’ ‘profane person,’ ‘idolater,’ ‘dog,’ ‘bastard,’ ‘child of lust,’ etc.: so, too, His sublime Mother."
Page 577 of volume 5 of The Oxford English Dictionary defines the word Jew as:
"To cheat or overreach, in the way attributed to Jewish traders or usurers. Hence Jewish."
In the late 19th century, the publishers of the OED published the following as a result of a legal action launched against them:
"A recent lawsuit, brought by a Jew, was decided in favor of the publishers. The Jew had demanded that the (above) definition be expunged by court order".
In 1895, The Populist Party of America launched its manifesto.

It said:
"As early as 1865-66 a conspiracy was entered into between the gold gamblers of Europe and America… For nearly thirty years these conspirators have kept the people quarreling over less important matters while they have pursued with unrelenting zeal their one central purpose...

Every device of treachery, every resource of statecraft, and every artifice known to the secret cabals of the international gold ring are being used to deal a blow to the prosperity of the people and the financial and commercial independence of the country."
On 6 March 1895, the Austrian Pastor, Dr. Joseph Deckert, delivered this sermon:
"Only after the Jew is banished out of our hearts entirely and burnt to ashes, the fight against Jewdom and Jewish domination can be renewed successfully. It was not a blind fanaticism that has made us anti-Semites fight, but the clear conception of the necessity of this fight. Not hatred against the Jews, but it is an emergency fight, and love to our own people which we cannot leave at the mercy of a tribe strange to us.

It is impossible that a Christian Aryan, in whose heart but one spark of Christian consciousness and Aryan pride and of love to one’s own nation is glowing, can face these conditions any longer. Relief must come, legal, constitutional relief, before it is too late. For if nothing happens soon, we will march toward a terrible revolution which is liable to swallow up the last remnants of our Western civilization."
The American novelist, Henry James, (1843-1916) discerned the 'hard glitter of Israel' on the Lower East Side of New York.

In east-side cafés, he found himself in 'torture-rooms of the living idiom' and asked himself this:

"Who can ever tell, moreover, in any conditions and in presence of any apparent anomaly, what the genius of Israel may, or may not, really be up to?"
In a letter to John Hay of 4 October 1895, the leading American historian, Henry Adams (1838-1918) said this:
"The Jew Question is really the most serious of our problems... The Kaffir circus is the most startling phenomenon since the South Sea Scheme. It is almost wholly in Jew hands. Beit is building a palace in Park Lane. Barnato has rented Spencer House. The Christians are furious. They talk of making a new ghetto. They secretly encourage the anti-Semite movement."
In a 20 July 1896 letter to the same gentleman, Adams said:
"Did you enjoy, as I did, that list of Jew names tailed after J. P. Morgan, in the foreign exchange syndicate which has been forced, at the last gasp, to step in and try to save Morgan's bankrupt stocks from going to nothing?... How the deuce do the Jews manage to make this chaos stand on end? The whole carcase is rotten with worms-socialist worms, anarchist worms, Jew worms."
In a letter to Charles Gaskell, dated 19 February 1914, Adams said
"The winter is nearly over. I am seventy-six years old and nearly over too... It is quite astonishing how the circle narrows. I think that in reality as many people pass by, and I hear as much as I ever did, but it is no longer part of me. I am inclined to think it is not wholly my fault. The atmosphere has become a Jew atmosphere.

We are still in power after a fashion. Our sway over what we call society is undisputed. We keep the Jews far away and the anti-Jew feeling is quite rabid. We are anti-everything and we are wild uplifters; yet we somehow seem to be more Jewish every day."
In his 1896 history, The Jew, Judaism, and the Judaization Of The Christian People, the French Scholar, M. Gaugenot-Demousseaux, says this:
"Masonry, that immense association, the rare initiates of which, that is to say, the real chiefs of which, whom we must be careful not to confound with the nominal chiefs of the Blue Lodge, live in a strict and intimate alliance with the militant members of Judaism ...

For that elite of the order, these real chiefs whom so few of the initiated know, are employed in the profitable and secret dependence of the cabalistic Jews. This phenomenon is accomplished, thanks to the habits of rigorous discretion to which they subject themselves by oaths and terrible menaces, thanks also to the majority of Jewish members which the mysterious constitution of Freemasonry seats in its sovereign council."
In a report from Rome of 1896, The Daily News told us this:
"The Pope, (Leo XIII) being uneasy at the extent of the Zionist movement for the return of the Jews to Palestine, and the statement that promises have already been made in their favour by the Sultan, has called Mgr. Bonetti, Apostolic Delegate at Constantinople, to Rome to devise means for opposing the Jewish plans, which are naturally regarded with horror by all good Catholics. In fact, this project interferes with the Pope's own desire to collect the necessary money to redeem the Holy Land from the infidel.

The Vatican has also made representations to France, which has the protection of Catholic interests in the East."
The educational philosopher, John Dewey, (1859-1952) a Professor of Philosophy at Columbia University from 1904, exerted the most profound and lasting influence on public education in America.

Indeed, this avowed Marxist was dubbed: 'The father of public education.' In 1896, Dewey said:
"Independent self-reliant people would be a counterproductive anachronism in the collective society of the future where people will be defined by their associations."
In 1897, Dewey said that schools must adapt 'to the circumstances, needs, and opportunities of industrial civilization.' In 1899, he said:
"The children who know how to think for themselves spoil the harmony of the collective society that is coming, where everyone would be interdependent."
Dewey is also alleged to have said:
"Anyone who has begun to think places some portion of the world in jeopardy."
The dumbing-down process in America began in the first decade of the twentieth century. Dewey and the big-business and tribal interests that backed him were largely responsible for this. It took 60 years for the British elite to realise that the working classes of our own country had also begun to 'think' and were, thus, placing them in 'jeopardy' also.

Deference to the child of the immigrant, comprehensive schooling, (for all but the elite and the religiously educated Jew and Catholic) tabloid journalism and Page 3 would, in the 1960s, begin the process of reducing the children of the British working classes to the educational, automotive level of their American counterparts.

In the 1897 book, American Metropolis, Frank Moss says this:
"The criminal instincts that are so often found naturally in the Russian and Polish Jew, come to the surface in such ways as to warrant the opinion that these people are the worst element in the entire make-up of New York City... A large proportion of the people of New Israel are addicted to vice."
The Presbyterian minister, Edwin Sherman Wallace, was the US Consul in Palestine from 1893 to 1898.

During his tenure in Jerusalem, Wallace interceded positively on behalf of the Jewish community in their disputes with the Ottoman authorities. Wallace did not seem to be the least concerned with Jerusalem's Muslims. He made his feelings pretty clear when he said:
"The coming inhabitants of Palestine will be Jews. The Jew has national aspirations and ideas, and a national future. Where, if not here, will his aspirations be realized and his ideas carried out?"
John Atkinson Hobson, (1858-1940) was an English economist who blew the whistle on the real reasons for the 2nd Boer War. (1899-1902) 

The following Hobsonian excerpts are taken from, 'The War in South Africa.'
"We are fighting in order to place a small international oligarchy of mine-owners and speculators in power in Pretoria. Englishmen would do well to recognise that the economic and political destinies of South Africa are, and seem likely to remain, in the hands of men most of whom are foreigners by origin, whose trade is finance and whose trade interests are not British…

South Africa presents a unique example of a large press, owned, controlled and operated by a small body of men with the direct aim of bringing about a conflict which shall serve their business interests...

The small group of international financiers (are) chiefly German in origin and Jewish in race."
General Sir William Butler was the Commander-in-Chief of British forces in South Africa.

In a letter from South Africa of 18 December 1898, addressed to the British Colonial Secretary, Butler said:
"All the political questions in South Africa and nearly all the information sent from Cape Town are being worked by what I have already described as a colossal syndicate for the spread of false information".
In a South African despatch of June 1899, to the British War Office, describing the efforts of the South African bankers to bring about war, Butler described these mostly Jewish finaciers as 'the train-layers setting the political gunpowder.'

Butler is also on record as having said:
"If the Jews were out of the question, it would be easy enough to come to an agreement, but they are apparently intent upon plunging the country into civil strife...

Indications are too evident here to allow one to doubt the existence of strong undercurrents, the movers of which are bent upon war at all costs for their own selfish ends."
In a February 1999 speech in Johannesburg's marketplace, Paul Kruger, (1825-1904) President of the Transvaal, said this a few months before the outbreak of the second Boer War.

"If it were possible to eject the Jew monopolists from this country’s neck and crop without incurring war with Great Britain, then the problem of ever lasting peace would be settled in South Africa."
Jan Smuts, (1850-1950) the South African Naturalist, General, Statesman and future Prime Minister, would later say:
"It is ordained that we, insignificant as we are, should be amongst the first people to begin the struggle against the new world tyranny of capitalism."
Very soon after the novelist, Mark Twain, (1835-1910) died, his daughter Clara married a Jewish piano player by the name of Ossip Galbrilowitsch.

Although, in 1899, Concerning the Jews, had already appearedin Harper’s Magazine, Galbrilowitsch immediately instructed his wife to see to it that her father's anti-Semitic document was removed from the collected works of the great man.

Thus was a Twainian opinion removed from theconsciousness of the Gentile world. However, copies of Concerning the Jews do still exist. The following is drawn from one of these:

"Can fanaticism alone account for persecution of the Jews? It is now my conviction that it is responsible for hardly any of it. In this connection I call to mind Genesis, chapter 47. We have all read the story of the years of plenty and the years of famine in Egypt, and now Joseph with that opportunity made a corner in broken hearts, and the crusts of the poor, and human liberty, a corner whereby he took the nation's money all away, to the last penny; took a nation's livestock all away, to the last hoof; took a nation's land away, to the last acre.

Then took the nation itself, buying it for bread, man by man, woman by woman, child by child, till all were slaves; a corner which took everything, leaving nothing, a corner so stupendous that, by comparison with it, the most gigantic corners in subsequent history are but baby things; for it dealt in hundreds of millions of bushels, and its profits were reckoned by hundreds of millions of dollars, and it was a disaster so crushing that its effects have not wholly disappeared from Egypt today, more than 3,000 years after the event.

Was Joseph establishing a character for his race which would survive long in Egypt, and in time would his name be familiarly used to express that character - like Shylock's? It is hardly to be doubted. Let us remember that this was centuries before the Crucifixion!

In the US cotton states, after the war... the Jew came down in force, set up shop on the plantation, supplied all the Negroes’ wants on credit, and at the end of the season was the proprietor of the Negro’s share of the present crop and part of the next one. Before long, the whites detested the Jew.

The Jew is being legislated out of Russia. The reason is not concealed. The movement was instituted because the Christian peasant stood no chance against his commercial abilities. The Jew was always ready to lend on a crop. When settlement day came, he owned the crop; the next year he owned the farm, like Joseph.

In the England of John’s time everybody got into debt to the Jew. He gathered all lucrative enterprises into his hands. He was the King of Commerce. He had to be banished from the realm. For like reasons, Spain had to banish him 400 years ago, and Austria a couple of centuries later. In all ages Christian Europe has been obliged to curtail his activities. If he entered upon a trade, the Christian had to retire from it.

If he set up as a doctor, he took the business. If he exploited agriculture, the other farmers had to get at something else. The law had to step in to save the Christian from the poor-house. Still, almost bereft of employments, he found ways to make money. Even to get rich. This history has a most sordid and practical commercial look. Religious prejudices may account for one part of it, but not for the other nine.

Protestants have persecuted Catholics but they did not take their livelihoods away from them. Catholics have persecuted Protestants, but they never closed agriculture and the handicrafts against them. I feel convinced that the Crucifixion has not much to do with the world’s attitude toward the Jew; that the reasons for it are much older than that event...

I am convinced that the persecution of the Jew is not in any large degree due to religious prejudice. No, the Jew is a money-getter. He made it the end and aim of his life. He was at it in Rome. He has been at it ever since. His success has made the whole human race his enemy. You will say that the Jew is everywhere numerically feeble.

When I read in the Cyclopedia Britannica that the Jewish population in the United States was 250,000 I wrote the editor and explained to him that I was personally acquainted with more Jews than that, and that his figures were without doubt a misprint for 25,000,000. People told me that they had reasons to suspect that for business reasons, many Jews did not report themselves as Jews.

It looks plausible. I am strongly of the opinion that we have an immense Jewish population in America. I am assured by men competent to speak that the Jews are exceedingly active in politics… All other forces pass, but the Jews remain. What is the secret of their immortality?" (Harper’s Monthly Magazine, September 1899)
Twain is also on record as having said:
"I am convinced that the persecution of the Jews is not due in any large degree to religious prejudice."
"Every nation hates each other, but they all hate the Jew."
On 23 September 1899, Arthur Griffith, (1872-1922) founder of the Irish Nationalist Party, Sinn Fein, had this to say about the Jews, in The United Irishman:

"The Three Evil Influences of the century are the Pirate, the Freemason, and the Jew."
On 23 April 1904, Griffith said this in the same newspaper:
"In all countries, in all Christian ages he has been a usurer and a grinder of the poor ... The Jew in Ireland is in every respect an economic evil. He produces no wealth himself, he draws it from others, he is the most successful seller of foreign goods, he is an unfair competitor with the ratepaying Irish shopkeeper, and he remains among us, ever and always alien."
In The United Irishman, Griffith was also very critical of the media support for the French soldier, Alfred Dreyfus, who was Jewish, and described them as:
"The impotent ravings of a disreputable minority which is universally regarded as a community of thieves and traitors… rags which have nothing behind them but the forty or fifty thousand Jewish usurers and pickpockets in each country and which no decent Christian ever reads except holding his nose as a precaution against nausea."
In support of the attacks on Jews in Limerick,Griffith wrote:
"The Jews of Ireland have united, as is their wont, to crush the Christian who dares to block their path or point them outfor what they are… usurers and parasites of industries… The Jews of Irelandare, in every respect, an economic evil."
John Jay Chapman (1862-1933) was American academic and lawyer, whose father was the President of the New York Stock Exchange.

After ten years working as a lawyer he devoted the rest of his life to literary pursuits.Most of Chapman's output was devoted to the criticism of big business and to the support of the poor and disenfranchised. This is one of Chapman's poems:
"How restful it is to survey the sea
From some low, windswept, silvery, sandy dune,
And watch the eternal climbing of the moon
Full-orbed above the shore’s complacency;
Wondering the while if Asian plains there be,
Or rock-walled valleys never shined upon,
Save by the perpendicular sun at noon,
So safe, so guarded, so remote as we.

But see, a sail! - nay, more - from every land
They cloud the ocean, conveyed by a crew
Of master pirates who have work in hand;
Old Europe’s nation-wreckers heave in view!
And lo, to aid them, on our margin stand
Our citizens - the Jesuit and the Jew."
The American editor and novelist, John Ames Mitchell, founded Life Magazine in the 1880s.

Under Ames direction, Life becone of the world's leading magazines.

At the turn of the century, Mitchell wrote:
"There is little sympathy here in America for the Jew. He has contaminated everything that he has touched."
Lord Kitchener was the Commander of British forces in South Africa, from 1900-1902.

In The Boer War, by T. Pakenham, Kitchener is quoted as stating that the Boers were 'afraid of getting into the hands of certain Jews who no doubt wield great influence in the country.'

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