Saturday, 16 September 2006

The history of antisemitism (2)

In a letter to the Duchess of Brabant of 1261, St. Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274) said:

"If rulers think they harm their souls by taking money from usurers, they should see that the Jews are compelled to labour."
In his, On the Governance of the Jews, Aquinas also said:

"The Jews should not be allowed to keep what they have obtained from others by usury; it were best that they were compelled to worked so that they could earn their living instead of doing nothing but becoming avaricious."
In article 8 of Summa Logica, Aquinas states:

"Heathens and Jews should not be compelled to believe, but they should be prevented from hindering the faith of others."
In 1261, Duke Henry III of Brabant's last will and testament said this:

"Jews...must be expelled from Brabant and totally annihilated so that not a single one remains, except those who are willing to trade, like all other tradesmen, without money-lending and usury."
In an Edict granted in 1271 James I, the King of Aragon stated:

"We, James... have learned of the denunciations made to Guillem Grony, bailiff of Barcelona, that there are many mad Jews in the Jewish Call of Barcelona who day and night because of their folly cause many injuries, insults and violences to the other Jewish worthies…

Those Jews who shall be elected or appointed by the Jews or by this community can eject or expel those foolish Jews from the Jewish Call or even from the entire city by our authority."
In his Statutes of the Realm of 1275, Edward I, King of England, decreed:
"Forasmuch as the King hath seen that divers evils and the disinheriting of good men of his land have happened by the usuries which the Jews have made in time past, and that divers sins have followed thereupon albeit that he and his ancestors have received much benefit from the Jewish people in all times past, nevertheless, for the honour of God and the common benefit of the people the King hath ordained and established, that from henceforth no Jew shall lend anything at usury either upon land, or upon rent or upon other thing. And that no usuries shall run in time coming from the feast of St. Edward last past...

But all those who owe debts to Jews upon pledge of moveables shall acquit them between this and Easter; if not they shall be forfeited. And if any Jew shall lend at usury contrary to this Ordinance, the King will not lend his aid, neither by himself or his officers for the recovering of his loan; but will punish him at his discretion for the offence and will do justice to the Christian that he may obtain his pledges again.

And that the distress for debts due unto Jews from henceforth shall not be so grievous but that the moiety of lands and chattels of the Christians shall remain for their maintenance; and that no distress shall be made for a Jewry debt upon the heir of the debtor named in the Jew’s deed, nor upon any other person holding the land that was the debtor’s before that the debt be put in suit and allowed in court.

And if the sheriff or other bailiff by the King’s command hath to give Saisin to a Jew be it one or more, for their debt, the chattels shall be valued by the oaths of good men and be delivered to the Jew or Jews or to their proxy to the amount of the debt; and if the chattels be not sufficient, the lands shall be extended by the same oath before the delivery of Saisin to the Jew or Jews, to each in his due proportion, so that it may be certainly known that the debt is quit, and the Christian may have his land again…

And if any moveable hereafter be found in possession of a Jew, and any man shall sue him the Jew shall be allowed his warranty if he may have it; and if not let him answer therefor so that he be not therein otherwise privileged than a Christian…

And that each Jew after he shall be seven years old, shall wear a badge on his outer garment that is to say in the form of two tables joined of yellow felt of the length of six inches and of the breadth of three inches…
And that each one, after he shall be twelve years old pay three pence yearly at Easter of tax to the King whose bond-man he is; and this shall hold place as well for a woman as for a man…

And that no Jew shall have the power to in feoff another whether Jew or Christian of houses, rents, or tenements, that he now hath, nor to alien in any other manner, nor to make acquittance to any Christian of his debt without the special licence of the King, until the King shall have otherwise or ordained therein…

And the King granteth unto them that they may gain their living by lawful merchandise and their labour, and that they may have intercourse with Christians in order to carry on lawful trade by selling and buying. But that no Christian for this cause or any other shall dwell among them."
It is, perhaps, interesting to note that the Parliament which passed this Statute included representatives of the Commons. This was, probably, the first Statute which the Commons, in small measure, enacted alongside the King. It is significant that the first evidence of the feelings and wishes of the commoners should have expressed itself in such a form.

Many Jews, forbidden by the Statute to profit from usury, took to 'clipping' or filing the edges of gold and silver coins. They would then put the filed coin back into circulation, enriching themselves at the expense of the intrinsic value of the coinage.

In 1286, in a letter to the Archbishops of Canterbury and York in which he called upon them to reaffirm the decisions of the Lateran Councils, Pope Honorius IV, decreed:

"No Christian should take medicine from a Jewish doctor…
Jews must taxes to parish clergy and wear a distinguishing badge when out on the streets…

They must not enter churches or build new synagogues."
In 1290, King Edward I banished the Jews from England. The Edict of Expulsion said:
"To the same end in the year 1290, all Jews, with their goods, children and wives, around the holiday of All Saints are banished from the land of England and of Aquitania. King Edward having conceded."
The Jews have never been formally/legally re-admitted to England.

In 1347, The Statute of Lesser Poland said:

"The aim of the perfidious Jews is not so much to take their faith away from the Christians as to take away their wealth and property."
The 15th century Italian priest, Bernardino of Feltro, said:
"Jewish usurers bleed the poor to death and grow fat on their substance, and I who live on alms, who feed on the bread of the poor, shall I then be mute before outraged charity? Dogs bark to protect those who feed them, and I, who am feed by the poor, shall I see them robbed of what belongs to them and keep silent?"
The Brothers Grimm told us this in Tale no. 353:

"In 1462 it so happened that in the Tyrol, in the village of Rinn, several Jews persuaded a poor farmer give up his little child by paying him a lot of money. They took the child out into the forest and in the most horrible manner, martyred him there on a big stone, which is ever since called the ‘Judenstein’…

Now, the mother of the child was working in a field as the murder happened, and at once her thoughts turned to her child and without knowing why she became very afraid, and then, one after another, three fresh drops of blood fell on her hand. Full of anxiousness she hurried home and sought after her child.
Her husband led her into the room and confessed what he had done. He wanted to show her the money which had released them from poverty, but it had all transformed into leaves. Then the father lost his mind and died of grief, but the mother went out to look for their little-child, and when she found it hanged on a tree, took it down with hot tears and carried it into the church in Rinn. And still the child lies there and is viewed by the people as a sacred child. The Judenstein was also brought there."
The Spanish Shakespeare, Lope de Vega, supported the expulsion of the Jews in 1492 and described them thus:
"This inhuman enemy of our land."
In the books, El Niño Inocente de la Guardia and El Brasil restituido, de Vega tells a story of Jewish collusion with the Moors against the Christians.

The Italian religious leader, Girolamo de Savonarola, was successful for a time in ridding his city of the Jews. At that time, they had been lending money at interest rates as high as thirty per cent. Savonarola and Giordano Bruno, who also spoke out against Jewish crimes against the non-Jew, were both later burned at the stake.

In one of his 1495 sermons, Savonarola said:

"We must abolish the pestiferous affliction and cankerous worm of usury, endured for sixty years in Florence, of the perfidious and God-hating Hebraic sect."
Martin Luther was the first and most influential of the founders of the Protestant Reformation in Europe and is, without question, the most important figure in the history of the Protestant religion.

He was, at first, on good terms with the 'people of the Book' but, after he had learned to read Hebrew and took a look at what they had to say in the Talmud, his opinion of them changed. Thus, in 1542, Luther published On the Jews and Their Lies.

Here are are some of the things he says in this book:

"They should be deprived of their prayer books and Talmuds. Their rabbis must be forbidden under threat of death to teach any more. I had made up my mind to write no more either about the Jews or against them. But since I learned that these miserable and accursed people do not cease to lure... the Christians, I have published this little book, so that I might be found among those who opposed such poisonous activities of the Jews who warned the Christians to be on their guard against them."
"Be on your guard against the Jews, knowing that wherever they have their synagogues, nothing is found but a den of devils in which sheer self-glory, conceit, lies, blasphemy, and defaming of God and men are practiced most maliciously and veheming his eyes on them."
"What shall we Christians do now with this depraved and damned people of the Jews?... I will give my faithful advice: First, that one should set fire to their synagogues... Then that one should also break down and destroy their houses... That one should drive them out the country."
"Moreover, they are nothing but thieves and robbers who daily eat no morsel and wear no thread of clothing which they have not stolen and pilfered from us by means of their accursed usury."
"However, they have not acquired a perfect mastery of the art of lying; they lie so clumsily and ineptly that anyone who is just a little observant can easily detect it."
"Over and above that we let them get rich on our sweat and blood, while we remain poor and they such the marrow from our bones."
"They remain our daily murderers and bloodthirsty foes in their hearts. Their prayers and curses furnish evidence of that, as do the many stories which relate their torturing of children."
"They (rulers) must act like a good physician who, when gangrene has set in proceeds without mercy to cut, saw, and burn flesh, veins, bone, and marrow. Such a procedure must also be followed in this instance. Burn down their synagogues, forbid all that I enumerated earlier, force them to work."
"The Jews are brutes, their synagogues are pig-sties, they ought to be burned, for Moses would do it, if he came back to this world. They drag in mire the divine words, they live by evil and plunders, they are wicked beasts that ought to be driven out like mad dogs."
"Know, O adored Christ, and make no mistake, that aside from the Devil, you have no enemy more venomous, more desperate, more bitter than a true Jew who truly seeks to be a Jew...

A Jew, a Jewish heart, are hard as wood, as stone, as iron, as the Devil himself. In short, they are children of the Devil, condemned to the flames of hell."
"They ought to be stopped from usury…Let the young and strong Jews and Jewesses be given the flail, the axe, the hoe, the spade, the distaff, and spindle and let them earn their bread by the sweat of their noses as in enjoined upon Adam's children."
In the book, Luther’s Table Talks, Luther tells us this:

"How the Jews love the Book of Esther, which is so suitable to their bloodthirsty, revengeful, murderous appetite and hopes. The sun has never shone on such a bloodthirsty and revengeful people, who fancy themselves to be the chosen people so that they can murder and strangle the heathen."
"The Jews are so hardened that they listen to nothing; though overcome by testimonies, they yield not an inch. Tis a pernicious race, oppressing all men by their usury and rapine. If they give a prince or a magistrate a thousand florins, they exhort twenty thousand from the subjects in payment. We must keep on our guard against them.

They think to render homage to God by injuring the Christians, and yet we employ their physicians; ‘tis a tempting of God. They have haughty prayers, wherein they praise and call upon God, as if they alone were his people, cursing and condemning all other nations."
"Jerusalem was destroyed over fourteen hundred years ago, and at that time we Christians were harassed and persecuted by the Jews throughout the world for about three hundred years. We might well complain that during that time they held us Christians captive and killed us, which is the plain truth.

Furthermore, we do not know to the present day which devil brought them into our country. We surely did not bring them from Jerusalem. In addition, no one is holding them here now. The country and the roads are open for them to proceed to their land whenever they wish. If they did so, we would be glad to present gifts to them on the occasion; it would be good riddance. For they are a heavy burden, a plague, a pestilence, a sheer misfortune for our country.

Proof for this is found in the fact that they have often been expelled forcibly from a country, far from being held captive in it. Thus they were banished from France, which was an especially fine nest. Very recently they were banished by our dear Emperor Charles from Spain, the very best nest of all. This year they were expelled from the entire Bohemian crownland, where they had one of the best nests, in Prague.

Likewise, during my lifetime they have been driven from Regensburg, Magdeburg, and other places. If you cannot tolerate a person in a country or home, does that constitute holding him in captivity? In fact, they hold us Christians captive in our own country.

They let us work in the sweat of our brow to earn money and property while they sit behind the stove, idle away the time, fart, and roast pears. They stuff themselves, guzzle, and live in luxury and ease from our hard-earned goods. With their accursed usury they hold us and our property captive.

Moreover, they mock and deride us because we work and let them play the role of lazy squires at our expense and in our land. Thus they are our masters and we are their servants, with our property, our sweat, and our labor. And by way of reward and thanks they curse our Lord and us! Should the devil not laugh and dance if he can enjoy such a fine paradise at the expense of us Christians? He devours what is ours through his saints, the Jews, and repays us by insulting us, in addition to mocking and cursing both God and man.

They could not have enjoyed such good times in Jerusalem under David and Solomon with their own possessions as they now do with ours, which they daily steal and rob. And yet they wail that we have taken them captive. Indeed, we have captured them and hold them in captivity just as I hold captive my gallstone, my bloody tumor, and all the other ailments and misfortunes which I have to nurse and take care of with money and goods and all that I have. Alas, I wish that they were in Jerusalem with the other Jews and whomever else they would like to have there."
In a letter to his wife, Luther said this:
"The sun never did shine on a more bloodthirsty and revengeful people as they, who imagine to be the people of God, and who desire to and think they must murder and crush the heathen. And the foremost undertaking, which they expect of their Messiah, is that he should slay and murder the whole world with the sword.

As they at first demonstrated against us Christians and would like to do now, if they only could; have also tried it often and have been repeatedly struck on their snouts. They live among us in our homes, under our protection, use land and highways, market and streets. Princes and government sit by, snore and have their maws open, let the Jews take from their purse and chest, steal and rob whatever they will. That is, they permit themselves and their subjects to be abused and sucked dry and reduced to beggars with their own money, through the usury of the Jews.

For the Jews, as foreigners, certainly should have nothing from us; and what they have certainly must be ours. They do not work, do not earn anything from us, neither do we donate or give it to them. Yet they have our money and goods and are lords in our land where they are supposed to be in exile!

Do not their Talmud and rabbis write that it is no sin to kill if a Jew kills a heathen, but it is a sin if he kills a brother in Israel? It is no sin if he does not keep his oath to a heathen. Therefore, to steal and rob from a heathen is a divine service... And they are the masters of the world and we are their servants - yea, their cattle!

I maintain that in three fables of Aesop there is more wisdom to be found than in all the books of the Talmudists and rabbis and more than ever could come into the hearts of the Jews... Should someone think I am saying too much - I am saying much too little! For I see in (their) writings how they curse us goyim and wish as all evil in their schools and prayers. They rob us of our money through usury, and wherever they are able, they play us all manner of mean tricks... No heathen has done such things and none would to so except the Devil himself and those whom he possesses - as he possesses the Jews.

Maybe mild-hearted and gentle Christians will believe that I am too rigorous and drastic against the poor, afflicted Jews, believing that I ridicule them and treat them with much sarcasm. By my word, I am far too weak to be able to ridicule such a satanic brood. I would fain to do so, but they are far greater adepts at mockery than I and possess a god who is master in this art. It is the Evil One himself.

Even with no further evidence than the Old Testament, I would maintain, and no person on earth could alter my opinion, that the Jews as they are today are veritably a mixture of all the depraved and malevolent knaves of the whole world over...

The Jewish people is and remains in Europe an Asiatic people alien to our part of the world, bound to that old law which it received in a distant climate, and which, according to its confession, it cannot do away with."
In February 1546, he preached a sermon at Eisleben, in which he said:

"How many of this alien people can be tolerated without injury to the true citizen? A ministry in which a Jew is supreme, a household in which a Jew has the key of the wardrobe and the management of the finances, a department or commissariat in which Jews do the principal business, are Pontine marshes which cannot be drained."
A few days later, Martin Luther was dead.

Here is one last thought from the founder of the Protestant religion:

"For thousands of years, since their emergence on the stage of history, the Jews were a parasitic growth on the stem of other nations, a race of cunning brokers all over the earth. They have cause great evil to many ill-organized states, by retarding the free and natural economic development of their indigenous population."
In the Papal Bull, Cum nimis absurdim, of 1555, Pope Paul IV, (1476-1559) condemned Jewish usury thus:

"Forasmuch as it is highly absurd and improper that the Jews… should, on the pretext that they are cherished by Christian love, and permitted to dwell in our midst, show such ingratitude to Christians as to insult them for their mercy and presume to mastery instead of the subjection that beseems them; and forasmuch as we have been informed that in Rome and elsewhere their shamelessness is such that they presume to dwell among Christians in the neighborhood of churches without distinction of dress, and even to rent houses in the more elegant streets and squares of the cities, villages and places in which they live… to hire Christian maidservants and wetnurses and other salaried attendants, and to perpetrate divers other misdeeds to the shame and contumely of the Christian name; and considering that the Roman Church tolerates the Jews in witness of the true Christian faith... we do therefore order the following measures, which are perpetually valid."
In the 16th century, the German humanist, Erasmus of Erbach, said this:

"What robbery and oppression of the poor there is by the Jews, so that they cannot suffer any longer! God have mercy on them. The Jewish usurers are fast-rooted even in the smallest villages, and if they lend five gulden they exact security of six times as much. They wring out interest on the interest, and yet again interest, until the poor wretch loses all he owns."
Speaking of the Jews in La gran Sultana doña Catalina de Oviedo, the creator of Don Quixote, Miguel de Cervantes, (1547-1616) said this:

"O, destructive nation! O, infamous ones! O, nasty race, to what misery have you brought your empty hopes, your crazy folly and your matchless obstinacy, you who summon hard-heartedness and obduracy against all truth and reason."
Some learned authorities have opined that Cervantes may, himself, have been a 'converso,' a converted Jew, though there is little in the way of hard evidence to back this opinion up.

In 1592, Pope Clement VIII, (1536- 1605) said this:

"All the world suffers from the usury of the Jews, their monopolies and deceit. They have brought many unfortunate people into a state of poverty, especially the farmers, working class people and the very poor. Then as now Jews have to be reminded intermittently anew that they were enjoying host rights in any country since they left Palestine and the Arabian desert, and subsequently their ethical and moral doctrines as well as their deeds rightly deserve to be exposed to criticism in whatever country they happen to live."
Francis Bacon, (1561-1626) the most famous literary and philosophical worthy of his day, was also James I's Chancellor. In The New Atlantis, Bacon states:

"Jews hate the name of Christ and have a secret and innate rancor against the people among whom they live."
In The Life of King Henry the VII, Bacon also tells us this:
"There was a townsman of Tourney that had born office in that town, whose name was John Osbeck, a convert Jew, married to Catherine de Faro; whose business drew him to live for a time with his wife at London, in King Edward IV's days. During which time he had a son by her; and being known in court, the King, either out of religious nobleness, because he was a convert, or upon some private acquaintance, did him the honor as to be godfather to his child. And named him Peter.

But afterwards proving a dainty and effeminate youth, he was commonly called by the diminutive of his name. Peterkin or Perkin. As for the name of Warbeck, it was given him when they did but guess at it, before examinations had been taken.

How many of us at school realized that Perkin Warbeck was a figure in the Jewish world plot against our sovereignty?"
In his play, The Jew of Malta, Christopher Marlowe (1564-1593) has the title character, Barabas, soliloquise thus:

"As for myself, I walk abroad a’nights
And kill sick people groaning under walls;
Sometimes I go about and poison wells;
And now and then, to cherish Christian thieves…

Being young, I studied physic and began
To practice first upon the Italian;
There I enrich’d the priests with burials,
And always kept the sexton’s arms in ure.
With digging graves and ringing dead men’s knells.

After that I was an engineer,
And in the wars ‘twixt France and Germany,
Under pretense of helping Charles the Fifth,
Slew friend and enemy with my stratagems.

Then after that I was an usurer,
And with extorting, cozening, forfeiting,
And tricks belonging unto brokery,
I fill’d the jails with bankrouts in a year,
And with young orphans planted hospitals,
And every moon made some or other mad,
And now and then one hang himself for grief,
Pinning upon his breast a long great scroll,
How I with interest tormented him.

But mark how I am bless’d for plaguing them:
I have as much coin as will buy the town."
Later in the play Marlowe says:
"To undo a Jew is charity, and not sin." (Ibid. act 4, scene 6.)
In 1610, the Medical Faculty of the University of Vienna warned us thus:

"It is the official position of the faculty that Jewish law requires Jewish doctors to kill one out of ten of their Christian patients."
On 10 June 1612, a Petition from the Citizens of Frankfort said this:

"Jewdom sits on the necks of the citizen and of the poor man, and is the cause of the rapidly increasing poverty, These vultures do not desist until they have consumed the marrow in the bones and reduced the citizen to beggary."
In his 1681 essay, Discours sur l’histoire universelle, the French historian Jacques Bossuet, (1627-1704) said this:

"The Jews, thinking themselves to be of a superior level than other men, look upon the Gentiles with unbearable disdain, an error that continues even today... Nothing happens to Jews that they cannot turn to profit. But the time draws near in which divine vengeance will strike these impertinent ones... A false passion blinds them and makes them hateful to all men."
In his Anatomy of Melancholy, the philosopher, Robert Burton, (1577-1640) said this:

"The Jews stick together like so many burrs; but as for the
rest, whom they call Gentiles, they do hate and abhor... Such is their
malice towards us...

The Jews at this day are so incomprehensibly proud and churlish, saith Luther... And as Buxtorfius adds, 'so ignorant and self-willed withal, that amongst their most understanding Rabbins you shall find nought but gross dotage, horrible hardness of heart, and stupendous obstinacy in all their actions, opinions, conversations'...

Josephus the historian taxeth his countrymen Jews for bragging of their vices, publishing their follies, and that they did contend amongst themselves who should be most notorious in villanies."
The Russian Tsar, Ivan the Terrible, (1530-1584) answering a demand by King Sigismund Augustus of Poland that Russia admit Jewish traders and money-lenders' replied:

"It is not convenient to allow Jews to come with their goods to Russia, since many evils result from them. For they import poisonous herbs into our realms, and lead astray the Russians from Christianity."
In his Journal of the Plague Year, (1665) Daniel Defoe, the creator of Robinson Crusoe, said this:

"It must not be forgot here that the city and suburbs were prodigiously full of people at the time of this visitation…

The numbers of people which, the wars being over, the armies disbanded, and the royal family and the monarchy being restored, had flocked to London to settle in business, or to depend upon and attend the Court for rewards of services, preferments, and the like, was such that the town was computed to have in it above a hundred thousand people more than ever it held before; nay, some took upon them to say it had twice as many…

I often thought that as Jerusalem was besieged by the Romans when the Jews were assembled together to celebrate the Passover… so the plague entered London when an incredible increase of people had happened…

Many that thus got away had retreats to go to and other houses, where they locked themselves up and kept hid till the plague was over; and many families, foreseeing the approach of the distemper, laid up stores of provisions sufficient for their whole families, and shut themselves up, and that so entirely that they were neither seen or heard of till the infection was quite ceased, and then came abroad sound and well…

Among these, several Dutch merchants were particularly remarkable, who kept their houses like little garrisons besieged suffering none to go in or out or come near them."
It is known that, in the Civil War between parliament and King Charles I, the Parliamentary armies were financed to some extent by the Jews of Amsterdam and the Hague.

When Oliver Cromwell became Lord Protector he called for parliament to readmit the Jews. Despite the fact that no one wished to cross the most powerful man in England, parliament would not ratify Cromwell's demand. Nevertheless, many of the most pwerful Dutch Jews, who had sought and been given sanctuary in Holland when they were kicked out of Spain and Portugal in 1492, set sail for London knowing that they would have Cromwell's protection. This just a few short years before the plague broke out.

Interestingly, as soon as they began to leave Holland for England, the English-Dutch wars began. When Daniel Defoe speaks of Dutch Merchants 'suffering none to go in or out or come near them,' my guess is that these 'merchants' will have been Dutch Jews.

The French author, Charles Perrault is the author of the stories, Cinderella and Mother Goose, amongst others. In the original translation of Mother Goose the following poem could be found:

"Jack sold his gold egg to a rogue of a Jew,
Who cheated him out Of the half of his due.
The Jew got the goose,
Which he vowed he would kill,
Resolving at once his pockets to fill."
John Dryden (1631-1700) was the first official Poet Laureate of England. In Absolom and Achitophel he remarks:

"The Jews, a headstrong, moody, murmuring race
As ever tried the extent and stretch of grace,
God’s pampered people, whom, debauched with ease,
No King could govern nor no God could please…
When the chosen people grew too strong,
The rightful cause at length became the wrong."
The Russian Empress, Katerina I, was the widow of Peter the Great. Peter had forbidden Jewish immigration but he left those living in the recently annexed Baltic and Ukrainian territories alone. Katerina was constrained by popular pressure to expel:

"... those Jews of masculine and feminine sex who are found in the Ukraine and in Russian cities... Henceforth they will not be admitted into Russia upon any pretext, and the closest watch will be kept upon them in all places."
After the Jew, Solomon Medina, helped finance William III's invasion of England in 1688, William knighted him the following year. Within 6 years of William III becoming King, the Bank of England had been established to pay for his European wars and the National Debt was established. The British people have been in hock to the banks ever since. As The Jewish Encyclopaedia, informs us:

"Isaac Suasso, Baron Auvernes de Gras, (Jewish) is said to have advanced 2,000,000 florins to William of Orange for the invasion of England. With the great movements of Continental armies in connection with the wars of Louis XIV. Large fortunes were gained by the Jews as commissaries; and these were then loaned out in banking operations. Thus, on the one side, Marlborough's troops were supplied by Sir Solomon Medina and Joseph Cortisos; while Jacob Worms performed a similar office for the opposing army of Louis XIV."
Medina profited hugely from the War of the Austrian Succession (1701-1708) that William and his successor, Anne, fought against Louis XIV. He would, subsequently, accord the Duke of Marlborough (Winston Churchill's ancestor) a pension of £6,000 a year. The Englishmen, who fought and died in these wars, as always, just died.

Dean of St. Pauls, Jonathan Swift, author of Gulliver's Travels, did not like Sir Solomon Medina and was thinking of him when he said the following in The London Examiner of April 12 1711:

"What if the Jews should multiply and become a formidable party among us? Would the dissenters join in alliance with them likewise, because they agree already in some general principles and because the Jews are allowed to be a stiff-necked and rebellious people?"
On 12 June 1712, Swift said this in the same newspaper:

"There was little or nothing transacted; there were multitudes of sellers but so few buyers, that one cannot affirm the stocks bore any certain price except among the Jews, who this day reaped great profit by their infidelity."
John Wesley (1707-1778) was the founder of Methodism. Here are some of the things the first Methodist said:

"There are some here who shall live to see the Messiah coming to set up his mediatorial kingdom with great power and glory, by the destruction of the temple, city, and polity of the Jews."
"The king sending forth his troops, the Roman armies, employed of God for that purpose, destroyed those murderers, primarily the Jews."
"His blood be on us and on our children… In the ruin so quickly brought on the Jewish nation, and the calamities which have ever since pursued that wretched people, so it was peculiarly fulfilled by Titus the Roman general, on the Jews whom he took during the siege of Jerusalem."
"The kingdom of God is nigh. The destruction of the Jewish city, temple, and religion, to make way for the advancement of my kingdom."
The King of Poland, Augustus II (the Strong), (1670-1733) once dramatically opined thus:

"The blood of Christian children, shed by the infidel and perfidious Jews, cries out to Heaven!"
Emperor of Russia, Peter the Great,(1682-1725) said this:

"I would rather see Mohammedans and heathens in my country than Jews. The latter are cheats and scoundrels. They do not have permission to settle and set up their affairs here. Despite my instructions, they are attempting to accomplish this by bribing my officials."
In A Strange but True Relation, the English poet, Alexander Pope, (1688-1744) says this:

"Keep us, we beseech thee, from the hands of such barbarous and cruel Jews, who albeit they abhor the blood of black-puddings, yet thirst they vehemently after the blood of the white ones. And that we may avoid such like calamities, may all good and well-disposed Christians be warned by this unhappy wretches woeful example to abominate the heinous sin of avarice."
The dramatist, actor manager and poet Colley Cibber, (1671-1757) was the Poet Laureate from 1730 to 1757. In his 1721 play, The Refusal, Cibber says:

"Ev'n Jews no bounds of luxury refrain,
But boil their Christian hams in pure champaign."
The French philosopher and historian, Montesquieu (Charles Louis de Secondat - 1689-1755), said this in the 60th of his Lettres Persanes.

"Where there is money there are Jews."
He also said:
"The Jews, always destroyed, always reborn , repaired their continual losses and destruction through the only hope that such tribes have, the faith that one day a powerful king would be born who would be the Lord of the World."
In a 1740 petition to his Prince, the Bishop of Mainz said:

"It is a matter of common knowledge that the Jews are the cause of ruin and destruction to the rest of the community."
The French author and political theorist, Voltaire, (1694-1778) was a philosopher and a revolutionary. More than anyone else, his inflammatory writings provided the revolutionary malcontents in France with the philosophical justification and impetus for their subsequent actions.

Ironically, considering his anti-semitism, a great many of these malcontents were Jews, chief among whom was Adam Weishaupt.

Weishaupt probably owed his own vision of a new world order as much to the influence of Voltaire’s anarchic theories as his Judaeo/Jesuit upbringing.

Weishaupt was the leading architect behind the creation of the Illuminati, the direct ancestor of the unaccountable masonic elites that, throughout the twentieth century, have plotted the establishment of the New World Order, invariably against the wishes and best interests of the people they governed.

Thirty of 118 of Voltaire's essays in his Dictionary of Philosophy are concerned with Jewish behaviour. He describes the Jews as 'our masters and our enemies... whom we detest... the most abominable people in the world.' This, then, is what Francis Marie Arouet, (Voltaire) the greatest French philosopher, thought of the Jews:

"The Jew does not belong to any place except that place which he makes money; would he not just as easily betray the King on behalf of the Emperor as he would the Emperor for the King?"
"Why are the Jews hated? It is the inevitable result of their laws; they either have to conquer everybody or be hated by the whole human race...

The Jewish nation dares to display an irreconcilable hatred toward all nations, and revolts against all masters; always superstitious, always greedy for the well-being enjoyed by others, always barbarous - cringing in misfortune and insolent in prosperity."
"It is certain that the Jewish nation is the most singular that the world has ever seen; and although, in a political view, the most contemptible of all, it is on various accounts, worthy of consideration."
"The Jews never were natural philosophers, nor geometricians, no astronomers… The Jews are nothing but an ignorant and barbaric people, which have for a long time combined the most loathsome avarice with the most abominable superstition and inextinguishable hated of all peoples by whom they are tolerated, and through whom they are enriched".
"Jews are ... the greatest scoundrels who have ever sullied the face of the globe ... They are, all of them, born with raging fanaticism in their hearts, just as the Bretons and Germans are born with blond hair. I would not in the least be surprised if these people would not some day become deadly to the human race... You have surpassed all nations in impertinent fables, in bad conduct, and in barbarism. You deserve to be punished, for this is your destiny."
"The Jewish nation dares to display an irreconcilable hatred towards all nations and revolts against all masters; always superstitious, always greedy for the well-being enjoyed by others, always barbarous, cringing in misfortune and insolent in prosperity."
"Whether these circumsised of Israel declare themselves to be the tribe of Naphtali or of Issachar is plainly of little importance; they are nevertheless the biggest scoundrels who have ever soiled the face of the globe."
"The Jews are a horror to all people by whom they were admitted.... At all times Jews have disfigured the truth by absurd fables."
"You seem to me to be the maddest of the lot. The Kaffirs, the Hottentots, and the Negroes of Guinea are much more reasonable and more honest people than your ancestors, the Jews. You have surpassed all nations in impertinent fables in bad conduct and in barbarism. You deserve to be punished, for this is your destiny".
"The Jews are the most hateful and the most shameful of the small nations."
"I know that there are some Jews in the English colonies. These Marranos go wherever there is money to be made... But whether these circumcised who sell old clothes claim that they are of the tribe of Naphtali or Issachar is not of the slightest importance. They are, simply, the biggest scoundrels who have ever dirtied the face of the earth."
Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790) was the most famous man in America before and during the American War of Independence. He was a scientist and an inventor, a politician, a publisher and a revolutionary. In 1733 he started publishing Poor Richard's Almanack, which was to become required reading for most adult American's for more than two centuries.

Franklin wrote following in his autobiography:

"The inability of the colonists to get power to issue their own money permanently out of the hands of George III and the International Bankers was the Prime reason for the Revolutionary War."
When Franklin used the euphemism 'International Bankers,' he was using the phrase in exactly the same way that it is used today.

With the revolution drawing to a close, he travelled to Holland to discuss the terms of a $50,000 loan with one of the aforementioned 'bankers'. On 26 November 1781, after Johann Neufville demanded an annual commission on all trade and internal exchange as collateral for the required loan, Franklin sent the following letter to John Adams, the future US President:

"I think that keeping us out of the possession of fifty thousands of pounds sterling worth of goods for securing the payment of a demand for damages is not only dishonorable treatment but a monstrous injustice. It seems to me that it is principally with Johann Neufville of Amsterdam, Holland, that we have to do; and although I believe him to be as much a Jew as any in Jerusalem, I did not expect that, with so many such constant professions of friendship for the US with which he loads all his letters, he would attempt to enforce his demands by a proceeding so abominable.

His proposition of terms on which he would borrow money for us stamped his character on my mind with an impression so deep that it is not yet effaced." (The Writings of Benjamin Franklin, A. Smythe, 1907)
In Essays on Several Subjects, the Scottish philosopher, David Hume, (1711-1776) said this:

"The Jews in Europe have a peculiar character and are famous for their fraud."
The Swiss philosopher, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, (1712-1778) is considered by some to be the most important writer, after Voltaire, of the Age of Reason. In Emilius and Sophia, Vol. III, Book IV, Rousseau seems to congratulate the Jews, writing:

"I will confess to you, that the majesty of the Scriptures strikes me with admiration, as the purity of the Gospel has its influence upon my heart".
However, a few sentences later, he says this:

"The Jewish authors were incapable of the diction and strangers to the morality contained in the Gospel".
The Prussian Emperor, Frederick II, (the Great, 1712-1786) ascended the throne in 1740. In 1761 he was elected the head of the Scottish Rite of Freemasons. Frederick is on record as having said:

"The rulers must keep their eyes on the Jews, prevent their interference with wholesale trade, check the growth of the population and deprive them of the right of sanctuary whenever they commit an act of dishonesty. For nothing is more injurious to the trade of the merchants than the illicit profit which the Jews make."
Pope Benedict XIV (1675-1758) issued the following Papal Bull on 14 June 1751. It was addressed to the Primate, Archbishops and Bishops of the Kingdom of Poland and said:

"Another threat to Christians has been the influence of Jewish faithlessness; this influence was strong because Christians and Jews were living in the same cities and towns. However their influence was minimised because the Polish bishops did all they could to aid the Poles in their resistance to the Jews...

In regard to the matter of the Jews, we must express our concern… Our credible experts in Polish affairs and the citizens of Poland itself who communicated with Us have informed Us that the number of Jews in that country has greatly increased. In fact, some cities and towns which had been predominantly Christian are now practically devoid of Christians.

The Jews have so replaced the Christians that some parishes are about to lose their ministers because their revenue has dwindled so drastically. Because the Jews control businesses selling liquor and even wine, they are therefore allowed to supervise the collection of public revenues. They have also gained control of inns, bankrupt estates, villages and public land by means of which they have subjugated poor Christian farmers.

The Jews are cruel taskmasters, not only working the farmers harshly and forcing them to carry excessive loads, but also whipping them for punishment. So it has come about that those poor farmers are the subjects of the Jews, submissive to their will and power. Furthermore, although the power to punish lies with the Christian official, he must comply with the commands of the Jews and inflict the punishments they desire. If he doesn't, he would lose his post. Therefore the tyrannical orders of the Jews have to be carried out.

In addition to the harm done to Christians in these regards, other unreasonable matters can result in even greater loss and danger. The most serious is that some households of the great have employed a Jew as 'superintendent-of-the-household.' In this capacity, they not only administer domestic and economic matters, but they also ceaselessly exhibit and flaunt authority over the Christians they are living with. It is now even commonplace for Christians and Jews to intermingle anywhere.

But what is even less comprehensible is that Jews fearlessly keep Christians of both sexes in their houses as their domestics, bound to their service. Furthermore, by means of their particular practice of commerce, they amass a great store of money and then by an exorbitant rate of interest utterly destroy the wealth and inheritance of Christians. Even if they borrow money from Christians at heavy and undue interest with their synagogues as surety, it is obvious to anyone who thinks about it that they do so to employ the money borrowed from Christians in their commercial dealings; this enables them to make enough profit to pay the agreed interest and simultaneously increase their own store. At the same time, they gain as many defenders of their synagogues and themselves as they have creditors…

You then, Venerable Brothers… must see to it that neither your property nor your privileges are hired to Jews; furthermore you do no business with them and you neither lend them money nor borrow from them. Thus, you will be free from and unaffected by all dealings with them."
The German philosopher, Immanuel Kant, (1724-1804) condemned the Jews thus:

"The Jews still cannot claim any true genius, any truly great man. All their talents and skills revolve around stratagems and low cunning... They are a nation of swindlers."
"They are a nation of swindlers that for the most part does not attain to civic honor, a lack they try to make up by profits from deluding the people among whom they live and receive protection."
In Anthropology from a Pragmatic Point of View, Kant says:
"Living among us, or at least the greatest number of them, they have through their usurious spirit... received the not unfounded reputation as deceivers ... They do not seek civil honour, but rather wish to compensate their loss by profitably outwitting the very people among whom they find protection...

We may suppose that their dispersion throughout the world, with their unity in religion and language, must not be attributed to a curse that had been afflicted upon this people. On the contrary, the dispersion must be considered a blessing, especially since the wealth of the Jews, if we think of them as individuals, apparently exceeds per capita that of any other nation at the present time."
In Kant's most famous work, the 1781 opus, The Critique of Pure Reason, he says this:

"The Jewish faith was, in its original form, a collection of mere statutory laws upon which was established a political organisation; for whatever moral additions were then or later appended to it in no way whatever belong to Judaism as such. Judaism is really not a religion at all but merely a union of a number of people who, since they belonged to a particular stock, formed themselves into a commonwealth under purely political laws, and not into a church."
The most famous of the Utilitarian philosophers, Jeremy Bentham, (1748-1832) said this in Defence of Usury: Grounds of the Prejudices against Usury.

"To lend money at interest, is to get money, or at least to try to get it: of course it was a bad thing to lend money upon such terms… What made it much the worse was, that it was acting like a Jew…

By degrees, as old conceits gave place to new, nature so far prevailed, that the objections to getting money in general, were pretty well over-ruled: but still this Jewish way of getting it, was too odious to be endured… the easier method, and a method pretty much in vogue, was, to let the Jews get the money any how they could, and then squeeze it out of them as it was wanted."
Nowadays, of course, whilst the 'odious' Jewish way of getting money out of us is still in place, the Jews are no longer 'squeezed.' This because so many of those who rule over us owe their position at the top of the greasy pole to the good offices of their Jewish 'friends' and paymasters. The Blair/Levy axis was a good example of this.

Ten years before he became Pope Clement XIV in 1769, Cardinal Antonio Ganganelli was dispatched to investigate ritual murder charges against the Jews in Poland. In Gagnelli’s report he describes his viewpoint, as he set out upon the investigation, thus:

"With my weak faculties, I indeavoured to demonstrate the non-existence of the crime which was imputed to the Jewish Nation in Poland."
Gagnelli's report was written up in the 1935 document, The Ritual Murder Libel and the Jew, the work of Cecil Roth, a Jewish historian. Roth’s book sets out to rubbish the perennial accusations of ritual murder that the Jews had been accused of down the ages.

Congratulatory critiques of Roth's work peppered the British press at the time. The Birmingham Mail, for example, stated:

"It is symptomatic of the unhealthy state of the Continental mind that credence can be given in certain parts of Europe to the atrocious libel in which it is alleged that Christian blood is a necessary concomitant of the Jewish Passover celebrations."
The Morning Post called the book 'a final and incontrovertible refutation of the hideous Ritual Murder accusation.'
And The Catholic Times said:

"The learned Cardinal completely refutes the persecutors of the Jews and conclusively shows the flimsiness of the charges against them and their inherent absurdity."
And yet, the initially sceptical Cardinal Ganganelli, who had travelled to Poland intending 'to demonstrate the non-existence of the crime which was imputed to the Jewish Nation,' ended up certain that that both St. Simon of Trent and of St. Andreas of Rinn had been murdered by the Jews.

The following are the Cardinal’s exact words, as seen in his report:

"I admit then, as true, the fact of the Blessed Simon, a boy three years old, killed by the Jews in Trent in the year 1475 in hatred of the faith of Jesus Christ. I also admit the truth of another fact, which happened in the year 1462 in the village of Rinn, in the Diocese of Brixen, in the person of the Blessed Andreas, a boy barbarously murdered by the Jews in hatred of the faith of Jesus Christ."
"The Jews are the carrion birds of humanity and are a state within a state. They are certainly not real citizens... The evils of Jews do not stem from individuals but from the fundamental nature of these people."Adams visited a synagogue in Amsterdam and remarked in his diary:
"I am sure (the Jews in Amsterdam) are all wretched creatures for I think I never saw in my life such a set of miserable looking people, and they would steal your eyes out of your head if they could."
In 1847, Quincy Adams warned the world of the dangers of Freemasonry when he wrote the preface to Letters On The Masonic Institution. This, in part, was what he said:

"The Institution of Masonry was introduced into the British Colonies of North America more than a hundred years ago. It went on slowly at first, but from the time of the Revolution it spread more rapidly, until in the first quarter of the present century it had succeeded in winding itself through all the departments of the body politic in the United States, and in claiming the sanction of many of the country's most distinguished men.

Up to the year 1826 nothing occurred to mar its progress or to interpose the smallest obstacle to its triumphant success. So great had then become the confidence of the members in its power, as to prompt the loud tone of gratulation in which some of its orators then indulged at their pubic festivals, and among these none spoke more boldly than Mr. Brainard… He announced that Masonry was exercising its influence in the sacred desk, in the legislative hall and on the bench of justice...

The language of the Old Testament, the history as well as the traditions of the Jews, and the resources of imagination, are indiscriminately drawn upon to deck out a progressive series of initiating ceremonies…

There has been a time, when resort to Masonry was regarded as eminently favorable to early success in life; and there have been men whose rapidity of personal and political advancement it would be difficult to explain by any other cause than this…

Originating in Great Britain somewhere about the beginning of the eighteenth century, it soon ramified not only in that country, but into France and Germany; it spread itself into the colonies of North America, and made its way to the confines of distant Asia…

An obvious danger attending all associations of men connected by secret obligations, springs from their susceptibility to abuse in being converted into engines for the overthrow or the control of established governments. So soon was the apprehension of this excited in Europe by Freemasonry, that many of the absolute monarchies took early measures to guard against its spread within their limits. Rome, Naples, Portugal, Spain and Russia made participation in it a capital offense…

It is believed that in France at the period of the revolution, and in Italy within the present century, much of the insurrectionary spirit of the time was fostered, if not in Masonic Lodges, at least in associations bearing a close affinity to them in all essential particulars."
Pastor of the Congregational Church in Charleston, South Carolina, the Reverend Jedediah Morse was the father of Father of Samuel Morse, inventor of the electronic telegraph. Morse offered up this sermon at the New North Church in Boston, USA, on 9 May 1798:

"Practically all of the civil and ecclesiastical establishments of Europe have already been shaken to their foundations by this terrible organisation; the French Revolution itself is doubtless to be traced to its machinations; the successes of the French armies are to be explained on the same ground. The Jacobins are nothing more nor less than the open manifestation of the hidden system of the Illuminati.

The Order has its branches established and its emissaries at work in America. The affiliated Jacobin Societies in America have doubtless had as the object of their establishment the propagation of the principles of the illuminated mother club in France."
The founder of the Illuminati was, as previously stated, the Jew, Adam Weishaupt.

Henry Fielding was a British dramatist, novelist and magistrate who was the founder of the first British detective force. In his essay, An Enquiry Into the Causes of the Late Increase of Robbers, Fielding had this to say:

"Among the Jews who live in a certain place in the city, there have been, and perhaps still are, some notable dealers this way, who, in an almost public manner, have carried on a trade for many years with Rotterdam, where they have their warehouses and factors, and whither they export their goods with prodigious profit, and as prodigious impunity. And all this appeared very plainly last year in the examination of one Cadosa, a Jew, in the presence of the late excellent Duke of Richmond, and many other noblemen and magistrates."
In The History of Joseph Andrews, book 2, chapter 16, Parson Adams remarked 'that he was glad to find some Christians left in the kingdom, for that he almost began to suspect that he was sojourning in a country inhabited by Jews and Turks.'

Tom Paine (1737-1809) was the author of Common Sense and The Rights of Man. This pamphlet was, undoubtedly the most required reading for all American adults during and after the War of Independence. Paine said:

"The character of Moses as stated in the Bible is the most horrid that can be imagined. If those accounts are true, he was the wretch that first began and carried on wars on the score or on the pretense of religion and, under the mask or the infatuation, committed the most unexampled atrocities that are to be found in the history of any nation...

The quiet and rural lives of the first patriarchs hath a happy something in them, which vanishes away when we come to the history of Jewish royalty.
Government by kings was first introduced into the world by the Heathens, from whom the children of Israel copied the custom… Monarchy is ranked in scripture as one of the sins of the Jews…

To the evil of monarchy we have added that of hereditary succession…
For all men being originally equals, no one by birth could have a right to set up his own family in perpetual preference to all others for ever…

It is one of those evils, which when once established is not easily removed; many submit from fear, others from superstition, and the more powerful part shares with the king the plunder of the rest."
The English historian, Edward Gibbon, (1737-1794) wrote the monumental, 'The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.' Abridged versions of this work were in common usage in British schools until well into the twentieth century. In this history, Gibbon tells us:

"We have already described the religious harmony of the ancient world and the facility with which the most different and even hostile nations embraced, or at least respected, each other's superstitions. A single people refused to join in the common intercourse of mankind. The Jews, who, under the Assyrian and Persian monarchies, had languished for many ages the most despised portion of their slaves, emerged from obscurity under the successors of Alexander and, as they multiplied to a surprising degree in the East, and afterwards in the West, they soon excited the curiosity and wonder of other nations.

The sullen obstinacy with which they maintained their peculiar rites and unsocial manners seemed to mark them out a distinct species of men, who boldly professed, or who faintly disguised, their implacable hatred to the rest of humankind.

Neither the violence of Antiochus, nor the arts of Herod, nor the example of the circumjacent nations, could ever persuade the Jews to associate with the institutions of Moses the elegant mythology of the Greeks. According to the maxims of universal toleration, the Romans protected a superstition which they despised.

The polite Augustus condescended to give orders that sacrifices should be offered for his prosperity in the temple of Jerusalem… But the moderation of the conquerors was insufficient to appease the jealous prejudices of their subjects…

Their attachment to the law of Moses was equal to their detestation of foreign religions… The conquest of the land of Canaan was accompanied with so many… bloody circumstances, that the victorious Jews were left in a state of irreconcilable hostility with all their neighbours. They had been commanded to extirpate some of the most idolatrous tribes…

The descendants of Abraham were flattered by the opinion that they alone were the heirs of the covenant, and they were apprehensive of diminishing the value of their inheritance by sharing it too easily with the strangers of the earth…

The religion of Moses seems to be instituted for a particular country as well as for a single nation; and if a strict obedience had been paid to the order that every male… should present himself before the Lord Jehovah, it would have been impossible that the Jews could ever have spread themselves beyond the narrow limits of the promised land…

The most considerable part of the Jewish religion was involved in its destruction… Yet even in their fallen state, the Jews, still asserting their lofty and exclusive privileges, shunned, instead of courting, the society of strangers… Their peculiar distinctions of days, of meats, and a variety of trivial though burdensome observances, were so many objects of disgust and aversion for the other nations, to whose habits and prejudices they were diametrically opposite…

The destruction of the temple and city was accompanied and followed by every circumstance that could exasperate the minds of the conquerors, and authorise religious persecutions by the most specious arguments of political justice and the public safety. From the reign of Nero to that of Antoninus Pius, the Jews discovered a fierce impatience of the dominion of Rome, which repeatedly broke out in the most furious massacres and insurrections.

Humanity is shocked at the recital of the horrid cruelties which they committed in the cities of Egypt, of Cyprus, and of Cyrene, where they dwelt in treacherous friendship with the unsuspecting natives… In Cyrene they massacred 220,000 Greeks; in Cyprus 240,000; in Egypt a very great multitude. Many of these unhappy victims were sawed asunder…

We are tempted to applaud the severe retaliation which was exercised by the arms of the legions against a race of fanatics whose dire and credulous superstition seemed to render them the implacable enemies not only of the Roman government, but of human kind…

Notwithstanding these repeated provocations, the resentment of the Roman princes expired after the victory… and by the mild temper of Antoninus Pius, the Jews were restored to their ancient privileges, and once more obtained the permission of circumcising their children, with the easy restraint that they should never confer on any foreign proselyte that distinguishing mark of the Hebrew race…

New synagogues were frequently erected in the principal cities of the empire; and the sabbaths, the fasts, and the festivals, which were either commanded by the Mosaic law or enjoined by the traditions of the Rabbis, were celebrated in the most solemn and public manner.

Such gentle treatment insensibly assuaged the stern temper of the Jews. Awakened from their dream of prophecy and conquest, they assumed the behaviour of peaceable and industrious subjects. Their irreconcilable hatred of mankind, instead of flaming out in acts of blood and violence, evaporated in less dangerous gratifications. They embraced every opportunity of over-reaching the idolaters in trade…

The Jews were a nation, the Christians were a sect… The laws of Moses might be for the most part frivolous or absurd yet, since they had been received during many ages by a large society…

The whole body of Christians unanimously refused to hold any communion with the gods of Rome, of the empire, and of mankind. It was in vain that the oppressed believer asserted the inalienable rights of conscience and private judgment…

It was not long, perhaps, before the Jews themselves, animated with a fiercer zeal and a more jealous faith, perceived the gradual separation of their Nazarene brethren from the doctrine of the synagogue: and they would gladly have extinguished the dangerous heresy in the blood of its adherents…

During a long period, from the death of Christ to that memorable rebellion, we cannot discover any traces of Roman intolerance, unless they are to be found in the sudden, the transient, but the cruel persecution, which was exercised by Nero against the Christians of the capital…

We may therefore presume to imagine some probable cause which could direct the cruelty of Nero against the Christians of Rome, whose obscurity, as well as innocence, should have shielded them from his indignation, and even from his notice. The Jews, who were numerous in the capital and oppressed in their own country, were a much fitter object for the suspicions of the emperor and of the people: nor did it seem unlikely that a vanquished nation, who already discovered their abhorrence of the Roman yoke, might have recourse to the most atrocious means of gratifying their implacable revenge.

But the Jews possessed very powerful advocates in the palace, and even in the heart of the tyrant; his wife and mistress, the beautiful Poppaea, and a favourite player of the race of Abraham, who had already employed their intercession on behalf of the obnoxious people".
Gibbon also informed us thus:

"The miraculous story of Moses is consecrated and embellished in the Koran; and the captive Jews enjoy the secret revenge of imposing their own belief on the nations whose recent creeds they deride. For the author of Christianity, the Mahometans are taught by the prophet to entertain a high and mysterious reverence."
The Anglo-Irish statesman and Parliamentarian, Edmund Burke (1729-1797) was the greatest orator and generally thought to be the greatest British thinker and statesman of the latter half of the 18th century.

After Louis XVI had been executed, Burke said this in Letters on a Regicide Peace:

"Are we quite sure that when we have surrendered half Europe to them in hope of this compensation, the Republick will confer upon us those privileges of dishonour? Are we quite certain, that she will permit us to farm the Guillotine; to contract for the provision of her twenty thousand Bastiles; to furnish transports for the myriads of her Exiles to Guiana; to become Commissioners for her naval Stores, or to engage for the cloathing of those Armies which are to subdue the poor Reliques of Christian Europe? No! She is bespoke by the Jew Subjects of her own Amsterdam for all these services."
In Thoughts Of French Affairs, Burke added:
"Revolutions have been conducted by persons who, whilst they attempted or affected changes in the commonwealth, sanctified their ambition by advancing the dignity of the people whose peace they troubled… They aimed at the rule, not at the destruction, of their country… They were not like Jew brokers, contending with each other who could best remedy with fraudulent circulation and depreciated paper the wretchedness and ruin brought on their country by their degenerate councils."
"Every person in your country (France)… is disgraced and degraded, and can entertain no sensation of life except in a mortified and humiliated indignation. But this generation will quickly pass away. The next generation of the nobility will resemble the artificers and clowns, and money-jobbers usurers, and Jews, who will be always their fellows, sometimes their masters."
"Is our monarchy to be annihilated, with all the laws, all the tribunals, and all the ancient corporations of the kingdom? Is every landmark of the country to be done away in favor of a geometrical and arithmetical constitution? Is the House of Lords to be voted useless? Is episcopacy to be abolished? Are the church lands to be sold to Jews?"
"The Old Jewry breathes nothing but this spirit through all the political part. Plots, massacres, assassinations seem to some people a trivial price for obtaining a revolution. Cheap, bloodless reformation, a guiltless liberty appear flat and vapid to their taste…

The Jews in Change Alley have not yet dared to hint their hopes of a mortgage on the revenues belonging to the see of Canterbury…

The third head of right, asserted by the pulpit of the Old Jewry, namely, the ‘right to form a government for ourselves,’ has, at least, as little countenance from any thing done at the Revolution, either in precedent or principle, as the two first of their claims."
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