Sunday, 17 September 2006

The history of antisemitism (3)

The Empress of Russia, Elizabeth Petrovna, (1709-1762) said this:

"Jews are still existing in various parts of Russia. From these Christ haters we can expect nothing good. On account of these circumstances I give this order: All Jews, male and female, regardless of their rank and wealth, with all their property, have to leave immediately across the border... From these enemies of Christ I want no profit."
The Queen of Hungary and Bohemia, Maria Theresa, (1717-1780) said this:

"The Talmud taught the Jews to steal the goods of Christians, to regard them as savage beasts, to push them over the precipice ... to kill them with impunity and to utter every morning the most horrible imprecations against them…

They are, all of them, born with raging fanaticism in their hearts, just as the Bretons and the Germans are born with blond hair. I would not be in the least bit surprised if these people would not some day become deadly to the human race." (Lettres de Memmius a Ciceron, 1771)
Maria Theresa also said:
"Henceforth no Jew, no matter under what name, will be allowed to remain here without my written permission. I know of no other troublesome pest within the state than this race, which impoverishes the people by their fraud, usury and money-lending, and commits all deeds which an honorable man despises. Subsequently they have to be removed and excluded from here as much as possible."
In A Memorable Fancy, the great English poet, artist and mystic, William Blake (1757 – 1827) says this:

"The Prophets Isaiah and Ezekiel dined with me, and I asked them how they dared so roundly to assert. that God spake to them… Ezekiel said: ‘We of Israel taught that the Poetic was the first principle and all the others merely derivative, which was the cause of our despising the Priests & Philosophers of other countries and prophecying that all Gods would at last be proved to originate in ours…

Our great poet King David desired so fervently… saying by this he conquers enemies & governs kingdoms and we so loved our God that we cursed in his name all the deities of surrounding nations…

The vulgar came to think that all nations would at last be subject to the Jews. This… is come to pass, for all nations believe the Jews' code and worship the Jews' God…

What greater subjection can be'?"
In A Song of Liberty, he says:

"O Jew, leave counting gold! return to thy oil and wine."
In To the Jews, Blake wonders thus:

"Is this thy soft Family love?
Thy cruel Patriarchal pride
Planting thy Family alone
Destroying all the World beside.

The Return of Israel is a Return to Mental Sacrifice & War.
Take up the Cross O Israel & follow Jesus."
In Notes on Landaff's Apology for the Bible, Blake asks:

"Wherefore did Christ come was it not to abolish the Jewish Imposture? Was not Christ murdered because he taught that God loved all Men & was their father & forbad all contention for Worldly prosperity in opposition to the Jewish Scriptures which are only an Example of the wickedness & deceit of the Jews & were written as an Example of the possibility of Human Beastliness in all its branches…

Murderers & Revengers such as the Jews were & of course he holds that the Jews conversed with their own State Religion which they called God & so were liars as Christ says… That the Jews assumed a right, exclusively, to the benefits of God, will be a lasting witness against them & the same will it be against Christians…

The laws of the Jews were The basest & most oppressive of human codes".
In Notebook, Blake says:

"He turned the devils into Swine
That he might tempt the Jews to Dine
Since which a Pig has got a look
That for a Jew may be mistook."
In the 1855 book, The Maxims of George Washington: Political, Social, Moral, and Religious, collected and arranged by John Frederick Schroeder, we are told that Washington (1732-1799) said:

"The Jews work more effectively against us, than the enemy’s armies. They are a hundred times more dangerous to our liberties and the great cause we are engaged in... It is much to be lamented that each state, long ago, has not hunted them down as pests to society and the greatest enemies we have to the happiness of America."
Jewish Queen, Esther, wife of the Persian king, convinced her husband that he had more to fear from Haman, his chief courtier, than the Jews. Haman and more than 70,000 of his followers were executed as a result. The Jews celebrate these events to this day at the Feast of Purim.

Schroeder tells us that, in 1778, Washington was moved to say:

"It is much to be lamented, that each State, long ere this, has not hunted them down, as pests to society, and the greatest enemies we have to the happiness of America. I would to God, that some of the most atrocious in each state, was hung upon a gallows, five times as high as the one prepared by Haman. No punishment, in my opinion, is too great for the man who can build his greatness upon his country's ruin."
In an address before the French Revolutionary Assembly, the city of Strasbourg's leaders opposed citizenship for Jews, because:

"Everyone knew the inherent bad character of the Jews and no one doubted they were foreigners... Let the ‘enlighteners’ stop defaming the Gentiles by blaming them for what is wrong with the Jews. Their conduct is their own fault. Perhaps the Jews might eventually give up every aspect of their separation and all the characteristics of their nature. Let us sit and wait until that happens; we might then judge them to be worthy of equality."
On 9 February 1807, Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821) convened a French Sanhedrin consisting of forty-five rabbis and twenty-six laymen. A Jewish administration answerable to the state was established soon afterwards. This was the first time that European Jews had the kind of codified civil rights they required.

The Court Jew had always inhabited the secret world of Princes and politicians and the lowly world of the peasant but Napoleon, more than any other man, opened up the whole world to the Jew. Interesting then that he is known to have said the following things:

"One cannot improve the character of the Jews by arguments. For them must be established special exclusive laws."

"The Jews have to be treated as a special people. They are a State within a state... They must be treated with political justice, not with civil justice. They are surely not real citizens."

"We ought to ban the Jews from commerce, because they abuse it. The evils of the Jews do not stem from individuals but from the fundamental nature of this people."

"Jews have to be conceived not as a sect, but as a nation. They are a nation within other nations."

"The Jews are a nation capable of the most horrible crimes."

"We must look at the Jews not only as a distinct race, but as an aliens. It would be a most awful humiliation to be ruled by this, the most base race on earth."

"I wanted to make a nation of citizens out of them but they are good for nothing but dealing in second hand goods. I was compelled to proclaim laws against them for their usury and the peasants of Elace have rendered me their thanks."

"The Jews provided troops for my campaign in Poland, but they ought to reimburse me: I soon found that they are no good for anything but selling old clothes."

"Legislation must be put in effect everywhere that the general well-being is in danger. The government cannot look with indifference on the way a despicable nation takes possession of all the provinces of France. The Jews are the master robbers of the modern age; they are the carrion bird".

"All the talent of Jews is concentrated on predatory acts."

"They have a creed which blesses their thievings and misdeeds."

"The Jews ought to be forbidden to trade, or to be goldsmiths. They forge an inferior kind of gold."

"The Jews are the locusts and caterpillars which are devouring France."

"The Jews have practiced usury since the time of Moses, and oppressed the other peoples. Meanwhile, the Christians were only rarely usurers, falling into disgrace when they did so. We ought to ban the Jews from commerce because they abuse it... The evils of the Jews do not stem from individuals but from the fundamental nature of this people."
In a letter of 6 March 1808 to his brother Jerome, King of Westphalia, Napoleon said:

"Nothing more contemptible could be done than the reception of the Jews by you. I decided to improve the Jews. But I do not want more of them in my kingdom. Indeed, I have done all to prove my scorn of the most vile nation in the world."
An ordinance within the Code Napoleon of 1808 said:

"Cheques and other obligations are only redeemable if the Jew can prove that he has obtained the money without cheating."
Napoleon also said these things:

"The hand that gives is above the hand that takes. Money has no motherland; financiers are without patriotism and without decency: their sole object is gain."

"When a government is dependent for money upon the bankers, they and not the leaders of the government control the situation, since the hand that gives is above the hand that takes... financiers are without patriotism and without decency."

"Four hostile newspapers are more to be feared than a thousand bayonets."

"Religion is what keeps the poor from murdering the rich."
Bonaparte was a Freemason as were his brothers, Joseph, Lucian, Louis and Jerome. Five of the six members of Napoleon's Grand Counsel of the Empire were Freemasons, as were six of the nine Imperial Officers and twenty-two of the thirty Marshals of France.

Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) was the third President of America. He was also the Ambassador to France, from 1785 to 1789 and authored The Declaration of Independence.

Jefferson described the Biblical priesthood thus:

"A bloodthirsty race, as cruel and remorseless as the being whom they represented as the family of god of Abraham, of Isaac, and of Jacob, and the local God of Israel."
He also these things:

"Ethics were so little studied among the Jews, that, in their whole compilation called the Talmud, there is only one treatise on moral subjects… What a wretched depravity of sentiment and manners must have prevailed before such corrupt maxims could have attained credit. It is impossible to collect from these writings a consistent series of moral Doctrine." (The Adams-Jefferson Letters, 1959)
"Moses... instilled into his people the most anti-social spirit towards other nations; the other [Jesus) preaches philanthropy and universal charity and benevolence."
"Dispersed as the Jews are, they still form one nation, foreign to the land they live in."
Speaking at the first Constitutional Convention, in 1787, Jefferson also said:
"If the American people ever allow private banks to control the issue of their money, first by inflation and then by deflation, the banks and corporations that will grow up around them, will deprive the people of their property until their children will wake up homeless on the continent their fathers conquered."
Jefferson also said:

"The system of banking is a blot left in all our Constitutions, which, if not covered, will end in their destruction... I sincerely believe that banking institutions are more dangerous than standing armies. Already they have raised up a monied aristocracy that has set the government at defiance. The issuing power should be taken from the banks and restored to the people to whom it properly belongs…

The principle of spending money to be paid by posterity... is but swindling futurity on a large scale."
"The Central Bank is an institution of the most deadly hostility existing against the principles and form of our Constitution. I am an enemy to all banks, discounting bills or notes for anything but coin. If the American people allow private banks to control the issuance of their currency, first by inflation and then by deflation, the banks and corporations that will grow up around them will deprive the people of all their property until their children will wake up homeless on the continent that their fathers conquered."
"Material abundance without character is the surest way to destruction." And:"Those who labour in the earth are the Chosen People of God, if ever he had a chosen people."
The first sentence of the following Jeffersonian quote is inscribed on the Jefferson Memorial. The rest of the paragraph has been censored.

"Nothing is more certainly written in the book of fate than that these people (the Negroes) are to be free. Nor is it less certain that the two races, equally free, cannot live in the same government. Nature, habit opinion has drawn indelible lines of distinction between them. It is still within our power to direct the process of emancipation and deportation peaceable and in such slow degree as that the evil will wear off insensibly, and their place be ‘pari passu’ filled up by free white laborers. If on the contrary it is left to force itself on, human nature must shudder at the prospect held up." (Letter to George Washington, 4 January 1786)
In October 1828, the great German poet, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, who was also the Minister of State for Weimar, said:

"The House of Rothschild is rich but it has required more than one generation to attain such wealth. Such things all lie deeper than one thinks."
Describing the Jewish ghetto in Frankfort, Goethe said:
"The lack of space, the dirt, the throng of people, the disagreeable accents of the voice, altogether, it made the most unpleasant impression, even upon the passer-by who merely looked through the gate. It was a long time before I dared to go in there alone, and I did not return there readily when once I had escaped from that multitide of people, all of them with something to hawk, all indefatigably buying or selling."
In Das Jabrmarktsfest zu Plundersweilern, Goethe says:
"What shall I say, however, about the people which has appropriated before all others the eternal blessing of wandering and has understood how to outwit by its mobile activity those who are settled and to surpass their co-wanderers?...

Nobody ever portrayed the caricature of a rabbi better than he. The fanatic zeal, the repulsive enthusiasm, the wild gesticulations, the confused murmuring, the piercing outcries, the effeminate movements, the sudden ups and downs of exaltation and the queerness of an ancient nonsense – all these he grasped so acutely that the presentation of this distasteful scene could make happy every man of taste as long as it lasted.

Their religion permits them to rob non-Jews... This crafty race has one great principle: as long as order prevails there is nothing to be gained."
Goethe also said:
"I refrain from all co-operation with Jews and their accomplices."
In a letter to his friend, Boettiger, Goethe said:
"Upon my renewed studies of Homer I feel deeply what an inexpressible misfortune the Jewish trash has caused us. If we had never learned to know the actions of the Sodomites and the Egyptian-Babylonian whims, and if Homer had remained our Bible, what a different aspect humanity would have had!"
"The Israelites have but small virtues and most of the faults of all other peoples. They have no point of honor."
In an 1816 diary entry, the Russian Tsar, Nicholas I, (1796-1855) said:

"The ruin of the peasants in these provinces are the Yids. They are full-fledged leeches sucking up these unfortunate provinces to the point of exhaustion."
The Tsar also said
"The general ruination of the peasantry of these provinces is attributed to the Jews, who are second in import to the land owners; by their industries they exploit to the utmost the unfortunate population. They are everything here, merchants, contractors, pothouse keepers, millers, carriers, artisans, etc., and they are so clever in squeezing and cheating the common people on the unsown bread and discount the harvest before the fields are sown. They are regular leeches, who suck up everything and completely exhaust the provinces."
One of the most powerful diplomats in European history, Charles Maurice de Talleyrand, (1754-1838) managed to preserve his influence over events whilst serving, in turn, Louis XIV, Robespierre, Napoleon and Louis XVIII. Talleyrand was also the chief French negotiator at the Congress of Vienna and, in that same year, (1815) it was he who signed the Treaty of Paris.

In a letter to Louis Philippe's sister, he said this:

"The English ministry is always informed of everything by Rothschild ten to twelve hours before the dispatches of the British ambassador arrive. This is necessarily so because the vessels used by the Rothschild couriers belong to that house; they take no passengers and sail in all weathers."
The German story-tellers Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm wrote a story, published in 1812, called The Jew in the Thornbush. In this tale, a German youth's violin playing so entrances a Jew that he is unable to prevent himself dancing to the music. The Jew begs him to stop, but the latter says:

"You’ve fleeced enough folks in your time; now let the thorns fleece you for a change."
The Brothers Grimm compiled a dictionary that was in general use for many years in Germany. Their original defintion of a Jew was:

"Among their offensive characteristics, emphasis has been primarily on their slovenliness, as well as their greed for money and their usury… To lend money, cheat, borrow like a Jew: that is worthless, neither a Jew nor a priest would lend anything on it."
William Cobbett was an English journalist and political reformer. He fought relentlessly for the working-classes and was not averse to a launching broadside or two against the political and financial elite, indeed, he was sent to prison for doing just this. In his essay, The Protestant Reformation, Cobbett tells us this:

"The Reformation changed England from being the happiest country, perhaps, that the world had ever seen into a land the main body of whose people were poor and miserable, with Jews and paper-money makers the real owners of a large part of it. With the foundation of the Bank of England in 1694, there arose loans, funds, banks, bankers, bank notes, and a national debt...

The Jews did it, but then Jews were regarded as a sort of monsters, who professed to be the lineal descendants and to hold the opinions of those who had murdered the Son of God... In degraded wretches like these, usury was tolerated...

The people looked back with aching hearts to former happy days, and the nobility and gentry began to perceive with shame and fear that already their estates were beginning to pass quietly from them into the hands of the Jews, Quakers, and other moneychangers created by the 'no-popery' war. But it was now too late to look back."
In 1827, Cobbett wrote an open letter to the Nobility of England. In this letter he said:

"When you reflect that your grandfathers would as soon have thought of dining with a chimney sweep than dining with a Jew or with any huckstering reptile who has amassed money by watching the turn of the market; that those grandfathers would have thought it no dishonor at all to sit at table with farmers, or even with laborers, that they would have shunned the usurious tribe of loan jobbers, and other notorious changers of money as they would have shunned the whirlwind or the pestilence. Gentlemen, You have been warned."
In 1833, Cobbett responded thus, to the House of Commons Bill seeking to emancipate the Jews:

"Suppose it was proposed to us to admit a race of cannibals to these powers, should we have a right to do it? Jew has always been synonymous with sharper, cheat, rogue. This has been the case with no other race of mankind."
If anyone dared to say today what Cobbett had the courage to say a couple of centuries back, he wouldn't be thrown in jail, he'd be thrown into a fiery furnace.

In 1823, Cobbett sent a letter to William Wilberforce, the most famous of the anti-slavery campaigners, in which he said:

"You seem to have great affection for the negroes... I feel for the hard-pinched, the ill-treated, the beaten down labouring classes of England, Scotland and Ireland, to whom you do all the mischief that it is in your power to do; because you describe their situation as good, and because you do, in some degree, at any rate, draw the public attention away from their sufferings."
Robert Southey, (1774-1843) poet laureate from 1813 to 1843, described the Jews thus, in Letters from England:

"Some of the lowest order let their beards grow, and wear a sort of black tunic with a girdle; the chief ostensible trade of this class is in old clothes, but they deal also in stolen goods, and not infrequently in coining.

A race of Hebrew lads who infest you in the streets with oranges and red slippers, or tempt school-boys to dip in a bag for gingerbread nuts, are the great agents in uttering base silver; when it is worn too bare to circulate any longer, they buy it up at a low price, whiten the brass again and send it abroad.

You meet Jew pedlars every where, traveling with boxes of haberdashery at their backs, cuckoo clocks, sealing wax, quills, weather glasses, green spectacles, clumsy figures in plaister of Paris, which you see over the chimney of an alehouse parlour in the country, or miserable prints of the king and queen...

But when they meet with a likely chapman, they produce others of the most obscene and mischievous kind. Anything for money, in contempt of their own law as well as of the law of the country...

England has been called the hell of horses, the purgatory of servants and the paradise of women; it may be added that it is the heaven of the Jews - alas, they have no other heaven to expect!"
The poet, George Gordon, Lord Byron, (1788-1824) said this in his Age of Bronze:

"Let us not to own the truth refuse,
Was ever Christian land so rich in Jews?
Those parted with their teeth to good King John,
And now, ye kings! they kindly draw your own;
All states, all things, all sovereigns they control,
And waft a loan ‘from Indus to the pole,
‘The banker - broker - baron -brethren speed
To aid our bankrupt tyrants in their need...

Two Jews, a chosen people, can command
In every realm their scripture-promised land:
Two Jews but not Samaritans direct
The world, with all the spirit of their sect.
What is the happiness of earth to them?
A congress forms their ‘New Jerusalem,
Where baronies and orders both invite
O, holy Abraham! Dost thou see the sight?

Thy followers mingling with these royal swine,
Who spit not on their Jewish gabardine.
On Shylock’s shore behold them stand afresh,
To cut from nations’ hearts their pound of flesh."
Byron also wrote this:

"Tis gold, not steel, that rears the conqueror's arch... Jews... direct the world with all the spirit of their sect."
In the year before his death, Byron wrote:

"Who keeps the world, both old and new, in pain
Or pleasure? Who makes politics run glibber all?
The shade of Bonaparte’s noble daring?
Jew Rothschild and his fellow-Christian, Baring."
The German philosopher, Arthur Schopenhauer, (1788-1860) said this in his Parerga und Paralipomena:

"What a mixed company inhabits the Temple of Universal same - generals, ministers, charlatans, jugglers, dancers, singers, millionaires and Jews! It is a temple in which more sincere recognition, more genuine esteem, is given to the several skills of such folk than to superiority of mind... The Jews are the great masters of the lie."

"The fatherland of the Jews is other Jews, hence they are fighting for them like for altar and home and no other community on earth sticks as tight as this one."
Andrew Jackson, (1767-1845) seventh President of the USA and the first to suffer an assassination attempt, said this:

"The bold efforts that the present bank has made to control the government and the distress it has wantonly caused, are but premonitions of the fate which awaits the American people should they be deluded into a perpetuation of this institution or the establishment of another like it...

If the people only understood the rank injustice of our money and banking system there would be a revolution before morning."
"When the laws undertake …to make the rich richer and the potent more powerful, the humble members of society, the farmers, mechanics and labourers, who have neither the time nor the means for securing like favors to themselves, have a right to complain of the injustice of the government."
In 1832, some 40 years after Alexander Hamilton had allowed privately owned banks to infiltrate America, President Andrew Jackson vetoed renewal of the 1832 charter of the Second Bank of America. Infuriated by the tactics of the bankers who were attempting to persuade him to renew the charter of the Second Bank, Jackson said this:
"You are a den of vipers. I intend to rout you out and by the Eternal God I will rout you out. If the people only understood the rank injustice of our money and banking system, there would be a revolution before morning."
Published alongside a caricature of Nathan Rothschild in a magazine of the 18 May 1833, the English novelist, William Makepeace Thackeray, wrote this poem:

"Here's the pillar of Change! Nathan Rothschild himself,
With whose fame every bourse in the universe rings;
The first Baron Juif; by the grace of his self,
Not 'The King of the Jews,' but the Jew of the kings.

The great incarnation of cents and consols,
The eights, halves and quarters, scrip, options and shares;
Who plays with new Kings as young Missus with dolls;
The monarch undoubted of bulls and of bears!

O, Plutus, your graces are queerly bestowed!
Else sure we should think you behaved infra dig!
When with favors surpassing, it joyed you to load,
A greasy-faced compound of donkey and pig.

Here, just as he stands with his head pointed thus,
At full-length, gentle reader, we lay him before ye;
And we then leave the Jew (what we wish he'd leave us,
But we fear to no purpose) alone in his glory."
In Vanity Fair, Thackeray offers us this characterisation:

"Her father was a German Jew, a slave-owner they say, connected with the Cannibal Islands in some way or other."
Giuseppe Mazzini (1805-1872) Carbonari leader, political agitator and high ranking Freemason, founded the 'Young Italy' movement in 1831.

Mazzini once opined:

"Rothschild could be King of France if he so desired."
Claude Henri Compte De Saint-Simon (1760-1825) was the founder of French Socialism. He is on record as having said:

"The people of God, that people which received revelations before the coming of Christ, that people which is the most universally spread over the surface of the earth, has always perceived that the Christian doctrine founded by the Fathers of the Church was incomplete.

It has always proclaimed that a grand epoch will come, which has been given the name of Messiah's Kingdom; an epoch in which religious doctrine shall be presented in all the generality of which it is susceptible, and shall regulate alike the action of the temporal and of the spiritual power. All the human race will then have but one religion and one organisation: the Golden Age was not behind us, it was before us!"
The Jew, Olinde Rodgriguez who was a disciple of Saint Simon, took over his socialst purpose when his master died. Rodriguez said:

"The crisis of reorganisation in politics and morality commences with me, through Saint-Simon, whose heir I am by virtue of function... From the day when Saint-Simon met the man who... understood the sciences, was sensitive to the fine arts and practised industry, the man who carried in him by blood the tradition of Moses... from the day when that man, who... had learned from contact with industrialists and scientists the secret of their force and the weakness of their morality; from the day when that man, burning to his innermost with the living flame of Saint-Simon, felt himself penetrated by a new life, and recognised in Saint-Simon... a new father; from that day was born the association of the universal family; from that day there became possible the reunion of Jews and Christians in the bosom of a new Christianity, a universal religion."
In his 1968 history, Israel Among the Nations, the Jewish historian, Shemaryahu Talmon, Professor of Bible at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, tells us of the crucial Jewish involvement in Socialism and Communism, thus:

"The wealthy Rodriguez brothers and their cousins, the Pereira brothers… played an apostolic role in his movement, that first Socialist movement in Europe. Saint-Simon quite explicitly links his vision of the future to the Messianic hopes of Judaism…

While Fourier, Toussenel, Proudhon, Pierre Leroux and Bakunin loathed the Jews, Saint-Simon and his disciples were emphatically philo-Semitic, whereas Marxism was, in spite of Marx's spleen against his own race, fundamentally not anti-Semitic. The line of demarcation in this was the approval or disapproval of change, indeed one may say of the modern world, and also the presence or absence of direct Jewish inspiration, which in most cases meant the same…

Fourier, Proudhon, and Bakunin stand in horror before the anonymity of industrial society and the centralisation it entails. They look back, as said before, to the lost innocence of pre-capitalist society or to some pristine state of nature. They extol the virtues of independent craftsmen and peasants and glorify the instinctive nobility of the unsophisticated, primitive rebel.

They dream of small communities, anarchistic groups held together by mutual aid. They look forward to a utopian world of 'pure justice' to the abolition of all authority and to the release of the passions. They loathe credit, exchange, the market mechanism, modern communications, the international press: all embodied for them in the Jew, the ghostly hand which holds the disparate parts together, and manipulates the figures on the chess-board…

Is it possible to detect significantly distinct, or at least especially accentuated characteristics in the Jewish revolutionaries in the early pre-1848 days of capitalism. I believe that there is reason to speak of a certain common denominator linking the Jewish Saint-Simonists, among the first Socialists in France, Moses Hess, the first Communist in Germany, the two leading Socialists of Europe, Karl Marx and Ferdinand Lassalle, and many lesser Jewish figures in the camp of revolution.

To be sure, it was not the Jews who created that particular climate of Messianic revolutionary expectation and preparation which it takes today some effort of imagination to conjure up. Babeuf, Buonarotti, Blanqui, Barbes, Mazzini, Harney, Mieroslavski, none of them and hardly any of their immediate followers were Jews. But it was the Jews who experienced and articulated that state of mind with peculiar intensity and their restless zeal spilled over into effective organisational activity.

No other group, not even the uprooted villagers who flocked into the rapidly growing industrial centres, underwent a more thorough break with their former mode of existence than Jews… Everything seemed provisional, a preparation for the real thing to come… expectation, hope and zeal was the ancient Messianic disposition… It was only to be expected that those alienated Jews who could not bring themselves to submit to Baptism would seek an anchor in the dream of a mankind one and undivided…

The early Jewish revolutionaries dream of a new religion, a religion of mankind the essence of which would be a new social gospel… It was the Jewish Saint-Simonists who were among the most fervent apostles of railway building, as incidentally also a means of uniting Europe and in due course the world…

It was no accident that Jews were the founders of the first international telegraphic news agencies and very prominent in building up the European press. In brief, they conformed beautifully to the classical image of the hinges and pegs in the European economy and polity... And, as said, credence was added to this image by the conspicuousness of the Jews in the central arteries of the body politic and the most sensitive foci of the economy…

In an unrecognised, almost illegal manner, money was made into the sole and supreme privilege in a society where birth, religion, tradition had become entirely subordinated to the supremely real cash nexus…

The very fact that the Jews had not yet gained equal rights underscored and indeed epitomised the great lie at the bottom of the liberal-bourgeois regime: the credibility gap between the official, seemingly popularly elected political rulers and the hidden holders of real power…

And so the Jews were destined to become the feudal lords of the modern world."
Honoré De Balzac (1799-1850) created a wickedly powerful Jewish businessman in his eponymous novel, Gobsec. He and Maison de Nucingen (Rothschild?) recognise the power money can buy. As Gobsec observes at one point:

"There are dozens of us in Paris, all silent and unknown kings, the arbiters of your destiny."
Anthony Ashley Cooper, The Earl of Shaftesbury (1801-1885) was a philanthropist, a statesman and an ardent Christian Zionist. He persuaded Lord Palmerston, the British Foreign Secretary, to take active steps to bring about the return of the Jews to Palestine and, on 25 September 1840, he presented a formal document to Palmerston calling for the 'recall of the Jews to their ancient land.' In an 1840 letter to Palmerston, he said:

"If we consider their return in the light of a new establishment or colonisation of Palestine, we shall find it to be the cheapest and safest mode of supplying the wants of these depopulated regions… Syria then will be a place of trade pre-eminence. And who are pre-eminently the traders of the world?

Will there, when the coming change has taken place, be any more congenial field for the energies of the Jew?... And has not England a special interest in promoting such a restoration? It would be a blow to England if either of her rivals should get hold of Syria."
When Shaftesbury became President of the Palestine Exploration Fund in 1865 he declared in his opening address:

"Let us not delay to send out the best agents ... to search the length and breadth of Palestine, to survey the land, and if possible to go over every corner of it, drain it, measure it, and, if you will, prepare it for the return of its ancient possessors, for I believe that the time cannot be far off before that great event will come to pass…

The inherent vitality of the Hebrew race reasserts itself with amazing persistence. Its genius, to tell the truth, adapts itself more or less to all the currents of civilization all over the world, nevertheless always emerging with distinctive features and a gallant recovery of vigor. There is unbroken identity of Jewish race and Jewish mind down to our times; but the great revival can take place only in the Holy Land."
Shaftesbury was also responsible for this, somewhat assinine, statement:

"Give the country without a people to the people without a country."
Oddly, despite the philosemitism, Shaftesbury is also on record as having said:

"It would be tempting to laugh at Jews for their grotesque life-style, if they were not so willing and able to do harm." (Characteristics of Men)
On 11 August 1840, Henry Temple, Lord Palmerston, British Foreign Secretary and future Prime Minister, said this in a letter to the British Ambassador in Constantinople:

"There exists…among the Jews… a strong notion that the time is approaching when their nation is to return to Palestine… I instruct… to strongly recommend to the Turkish Government… to encourage the Jews of Europe to return to Palestine."
William Ewart Gladstone (1809-1898) was the British Prime Minister on no less than four separate occasions. Speaking of D’Israeli, after he had been defeated by him in the General election, Gladstone said:

"That Jew is going to spend our surplus."
In the play, The Mississippiens, the French novelist, George Sand (Amandine Dupin Dudevant - 1804-1876), brought the medieval dramatic image of the Jewish moneylender up to date. Samuel Bourset, the Jewish character, is 'a man capable of speculating financially with his own intestines.' He has no religion other than money and is prepared to sell his own daughter.

In an 1857 letter to Victor Lorie, George Sand said:

"I saw in ‘the wandering Jew’ the personification of the Jewish people, exiled in the Middle Ages. Nevertheless, they are once again extremely rich, owing to their unfailing rude greediness and their indefatigable activity. With their hardheartedness that they extend toward people of other faiths and races they are at the point of making themselves kings of the world. This people can thank its obstinacy that France will be Judaised within fifty years. Already some wise Jews prophesy this frankly."
The American poet, diplomat and abolitionist, James Russell Lowell (1819 – 1891) said this:

"Where would the Jew be among a society of primitive men without pockets?"
In the 9 August 1879, edition of The Labour Standard, Henry Cabot Lodge expressed the view that:

"Lowell believed that the English Jews were moving close to control of the world."
Baron Edward Bulwer-Lytton, (1803-1873) the English writer and politician, was the MP for St. Ives, from 1831-1841. In the 1853 book, My Novel, Bulwer-Lytton describes a Jewish moneylender thus:

"That cynical impersonation of Gold… The magnetic Rock in the Arabian tale, to which the nails in every ship that approaches the lodestone fly from the planks, and a shipwreck a day adds its waifs to the Rock."
The play, Leila, features Almamen, a sinister Jewish 'master of magic' and his 1835 play, Rienzi, was the inspiration for Wagner’s great opera.

When a Jewish woman wrote to Charles Dickens (1812-1870) complaining that the character of Fagin was atypical, Dickens wrote back to her, saying:

"Fagin is a Jew because it is unfortunately true, of the time to which the story refers, that that class of criminal almost invariably was Jewish."
Fagin was probably based on the Jewish fence, Ikey Solomon, who had undergone a much publicised trial in England a few years before the book was written. Descriptions of Fagin in Oliver Twist include:

"In short the wily old Jew had the boy in his toils... he was now instilling in his soul the poison which he hoped would blacken it and change its hue forever."
"Fagin slinks, snakelike, along London's darkened streets. The mud lay thick upon the stones, and a black mist hung over the streets; the rain fell sluggishly down, and everything felt cold and clammy to the touch. It seemed just the night when it befitted such a being as the Jew to be abroad. As he glided stealthily along, creeping beneath the shelter of the walls and doorways, the hideous old man seemed like some loathsome reptile, engendered in the slime and darkness through which he moved, crawling forth by night, in search of some rich offal for a meal."
"He bit his long black nails he disclosed among his toothless gums a few such fangs as should have been a dog's or a rat's."
And, on the night of his execution:

"His countenance was more like that of a snared beast than of a man."
In Anthony Trollope's 1875 novel, The Way We Live Now, after Georgiana announces her engagement to Mr. Brehgert, a Jew, Lady Pomona, Georgiana's mother, says:

"This is dreadful. It will kill me. It will indeed. I didn't expect it from you... It's unnatural... I'm sure there's something in the Bible against it. You never would read your Bible, or you wouldn't be going to do this...

I'm sure your papa won't allow it. If he's fixed about anything, it's about the Jews. An accursed race; think of that, Georgiana; expelled from Paradise... It's only since those nasty Radicals came up that they have been able to sit in Parliament."
To which Georgiana replies:

"One of the greatest judges in the land is a Jew."
Things don't change much, do they?

The Russian writer, Ivan Turgenev, (1818-1883) described 'the Yids' in his Literary Memoirs, as:

"... having seized power over the pockets of the entire world, and likely, in a short time, to get hold of everything else."
In his book Poor Jack, the British novelist, Captain Frederick Marryat (1792-1848) speaks of Jewish 'fences' thus:

"We have what we call Jew Carts, always ready to take goods inland, where they will not be looked after."
In her 1898 work, The Secrets of the Rothschilds, Mary E. Hobard posed the question:

"How then was it that this (American) Government, several years after the (Civil) war was over, found itself owing in London and Wall Street several hundred million dollars to men who never fought a battle, who never made a uniform, never furnished a pound of bread, who never did an honest day’s work in all their lives?

The facts is that billions owned by the sweat, tears and blood of American laborers have been poured into the coffers of these men for absolutely nothing. This ‘sacred war debt’ was only a gigantic scheme of fraud, concocted by European capitalists and enacted into American laws by the aid of American Congressmen, who were their paid hirelings or their ignorant dupes.

That this crime has remained uncovered is due to the power of prejudice which seldom permits the victim to see clearly or reason correctly."
The French social theorist, Pierre Joseph Proudhon, (1809-1865) is regarded as the father of Anarchism. In the 1970 book, The Selected Writings Of Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, he is recorded as having said:

"The Jew is the enemy of the human race. This race must be sent back to Asia, or exterminated. H. Heine, A. Weil, and others are simply secret spies. Rothschild, Crémieux, Marx, Fould, evil choleric, envious, bitter men etc, etc, who hate us."
In Césarisme et christianisme he says:
"The Jew is by temperament an anti-producer, neither a farmer nor an industrial nor even a true merchant. He is an intermediary, always fraudulent and parasitic, who operates, in trade as in philosophy, by means of falsification, counterfeiting, horse-dealing. He knows but the rise and fall of prices, the risk of transport, the incertitude of crops, the hazard of demand and supply. His policy in economics has always been entirely negative, entirely usurious; it is the evil principle, Satan, Ahriman, incarnated in the race of Sem."
In Representant A Peuple he says:
"The Jews, again the Jews, always the Jews! Under the Republic, just as under Louis-Philippe and under Louis XVI, we are at the mercy of the Jews!"
He also said:

"Jews - Write an article against this race which poisons everything, by meddling everywhere without ever joining itself to another people. Demand their expulsion from France, with the exception of individuals married to Frenchwomen Abolish the synagogues; don't admit them to any kind of employment, pursue finally the abolition of this cult. It is not for nothing that the Christians called them deicides. The Jew is the enemy of the human race."
During the Revolutions of 1848, the future Prussian Emperor, Friedrich Wilhelm I, successfully crushed a revolt that was aimed at his elder brother King Frederick William IV.

Friedrich Wilhem charged 'the circumcised' for having brought 'that shame upon Germany'.

Marx's emanuensis, Friedrich Engels, (1820-1895) wrote this:

"I begin to understand French anti-Semitism when I see how many Jews of Polish origin and German names intrude themselves everywhere."
The Russian anarchist, Mikhyl Bakunyin, (1814-1876) declared that Jews were:

"… an exploiting sect, a blood-sucking people, a unique, devouring parasite tightly and intimately organised together, not only across national boundaries, but also across all divergences of political opinion...

They have that mercantile passion which constitutes one of the principle traits of their national character."
In response to claims of anti-semitism levelled by Moses Hess and various other German Jews, Bakunyin said this in Le Reveil:

"We may observe in connection with the modern Jews that their nature lends itself little to frank Socialism. Their history, long before the Christian era, implanted in them an essentially mercantile and bourgeois tendency, with the result that, considered as a nation, they are par excellence the exploiters of other men's work, and they have a natural horror and fear of the popular masses, whom they despise, moreover, whether openly or in secret.

The habit of exploitation, whilst developing the intelligence of the exploiters, gives it an exclusive and disastrous bent and quite contrary to the interests as well as to the instincts of the proletariat.

I know that in expressing with this frankness my intimate opinion on the Jews I expose myself to enormous dangers. Many people share it, but very few dare publicly to express it, for the Jewish sect, very much more formidable than that of the Jesuits, Catholic or Protestant, constitutes today a veritable power in Europe. It reigns despotically in commerce, in the banks, and it has invaded three-quarters of German journalism and a very considerable portion of the journalism of other countries. Woe, then, to him who has the clumsiness to displease it!"
Bakunyin also prophesied that the French Revolution would be 'the forerunner of another revolution, greater and more solemn, which would be the last.'

In the play, Cromwell, by the French dramatist, Victor Hugo, (1802-1885) Rabbi Manassé ben Israël (based on an actual financier of the English Civil War) is Cromwell’s agent, eminence grise, 'spy from heaven' and all-around evil genius. However, this does not prevent him from indulging in counterespionage when it is profitable. Ben Israel says:

"Of the two rival parties, does it matter which succumbs? Either way, Christian blood will flow in torrents! At least, I hope so! That’s the advantage of conspiracies…To steal from Christians is a meritorious thing."
A Jew in Hugo's play, Marie Tudor, says:

"I am one of the main moneylenders of Kantersten Street, in Brussels. I lend ten and I get back fifteen. I lend to everybody. I would lend to the devil, I would lend to the Pope."
In this same play another character says:
"Lying and thievery, that’s the mark of the Jew."
The Prussian General, Count Helmuth Von Moltke (1800-1991) said these things:

"The Jews form a state, and, obeying their own laws, they evade those of their host country. The Jews always consider an oath regarding a Christian not binding. During the Campaign of 1812 the Jews were spies, they were paid by both sides, they betrayed both sides."
"It is seldom that the police investigate a robbery in which a Jew is not found either to be an accomplice or a receiver."
In his 1820 novel, Ivanhoe, the Scottish novelist, Sir Walter Scott (1771-1832) writes:

"The passive courage inspired by the love of gain, induced the Jews to dare the various evils to which they were subjected, in consideration of the immense profits which they were enabled to realise in a country naturally so wealthy as England.

In spite of every kind of discouragement, and even of the special court of taxations already mentioned, called the Jews' Exchequer, erected for the very purpose of despoiling and distressing them, the Jews increased, multiplied, and accumulated huge sums, which they transferred from one hand to another by means of bills of exchange, an invention for which commerce is said to be indebted to them, and which enabled them to transfer their wealth from land to land, that when threatened with oppression in one country, their treasure might be secured in another.

The obstinacy and avarice of the Jews being thus in a measure placed in opposition to... the persecution with which they were visited...

The immense wealth they usually acquired in commerce, while it frequently placed them in danger, was at other times used to extend their influence, and to secure to them a certain degree of protection.

On these terms they lived; and their character, influenced accordingly, was watchful, suspicious, and timid, yet obstinate, uncomplying, and skilful in evading the dangers to which they were exposed… the nobility borrowed sums of money from the Jews at the most usurious interest, which gnawed into their estates like consuming cankers…

Isaac felt more than usually confident, being aware that Prince John was even then in the very act of negotiating a large loan from the Jews of York, to be secured upon certain jewels and lands. Isaac's own share in this transaction was considerable, and he well knew that the Prince's eager desire to bring it to a conclusion would ensure him his protection in the dilemma in which he stood.

Emboldened by these considerations, the Jew pursued his point, and jostled the Norman Christian, without respect either to his descent, quality, or religion. The complaints of the old man, however, excited the indignation of the bystanders. One of these, a stout well-set yeoman, arrayed in Lincoln green, having twelve arrows stuck in his belt, with a baldric and badge of silver, and a bow of six feet length in his hand, turned short round, and while his countenance, which his constant exposure to weather had rendered brown as a hazel nut, grew darker with anger, he advised the Jew to remember that all the wealth he had acquired by sucking the blood of his miserable victims had but swelled him like a bloated spider, which might be overlooked while he kept in a comer, but would be crushed if it ventured into the light.

This intimation, delivered in Norman-English with a firm voice and a stern aspect, made the Jew shrink back; and he would have probably withdrawn himself altogether from a vicinity so dangerous, had not the attention of every one been called to the sudden entrance of Prince John, who at that moment entered the lists, attended by a numerous and gay train…

The Jews, it is well known, being as liberal in exercising the duties of hospitality and charity among their own people, as they were alleged to be reluctant and churlish in extending them to those whom they termed Gentiles in the interior of their houses, the Jews refused themselves no expensive indulgences…

The Jew's hand trembled for joy as he wrapped up the first seventy pieces of gold. The last ten he told over with much deliberation, pausing, and saying something as he took each piece from the table, and dropt it into hispurse. It seemed as if his avarice were struggling with his better nature, and compelling him to pouch zecchin after zecchin while his generosity urged him to restore some part at least to his benefactor, or as a donation to his agent…

The Jews, by the very frequency of their fear on all occasions, had their minds in some degree prepared for every effort of tyranny which could be practised upon them; so that no aggression, when it had taken place, could bring with it that surprise which is the most disabling quality of terror…

The Jews, both male and female, possessed and practised the medical science in all its branches, and the monarchs and powerful barons of the time frequently committed themselves to the charge of some experienced sage among this despised people, when wounded or in sickness. The aid of the Jewish physicians was not the less eagerly sought after, though a general belief prevailed among the Christians, that the Jewish Rabbins were deeply acquainted with the occult sciences, and particularly with the cabalistical art, which had its name and origin in the studies of the sages of Israel.

Neither did the Rabbins disown such acquaintance with supernatural arts, which added nothing (for what could add aught?) to the hatred with which their nation was regarded, while it diminished the contempt with which that malevolence was mingled.

A Jewish magician might be the subject of equal abhorrence with a Jewish usurer, but he could not be equally despised. It is besides probable, considering the wonderful cures they are said to have performed, that the Jews possessed some secrets of the healing art peculiar to themselves, and which, with the exclusive spirit arising out of their condition, they took great care to conceal from the Christians amongst whom they dwelt."
The German historian, Theodore Mommsen (1817-1903) had originally taken a liberal position in favor of the Jewish immigrants then flooding into Germany from the east, however he soon changed his tune. In Ein Wort über unser Judenthum, Mommsen says this:

"The great number of specifically Jewish societies which exist here in Berlin appear to me to be definitely evil, insofar as they are not purely religious... The Jews have no Moses to lead them back to the Promised Land; whether they sell pants or write books, it is their duty, insofar as they can do it without violating their conscience, to combat the peculiarity of their existence, and to batter down the fences between them and their fellow citizens."
On 12 July 1858, Lord Harrington gave the following speech in the House of Lords, opposing Jewish immigration:

"They are the great moneylenders and loan contractors of the world... The consequence is that the nations of the world are groaning under heavy systems of taxation and national debt. They have ever been the greatest enemies of freedom.

Their mutual jealousies, their balance of power, their complicated alliances, their forms and principles of government are all foreign to us. They are nations of eternal war. All their energies are expended in the destruction of the labor, property, and lives of their people. On our part never had a people so favorable a chance of trying the opposite system, of peace and fraternity with mankind, and the direction of all our means and faculties to the purposes of improvement instead of destruction...

And the system of government which shall keep us afloat amidst the wreck of the world will be immortalized in history. I am so far from believing that our reputation will be tarnished by our not having mixed in the made contests of the rest of the world that, setting aside the ravings of pepper-pot politicians, of whom there are enough in every age and country, I believe it will place us high on the scale of wisdom to have preserved our country tranquil and prosperous during a contest which prostrated the honor, power, independence, laws, and property of every country on the other side of the Atlantic…

I oppose the admission of the Jews because they are the great money lenders and loan contractors of the world. They do not care whether they support a good or a bad cause. The consequence is that the nations of the world are groaning under the heavy systems of taxation and national debt. They have ever been the greatest enemies of freedom."
In the 1860 novel, The Marble Faun, the American novelist, Nathaniel Hawthorne, (1804-1864) describes a part of Rome thus:

"Hilda's present expedition led her into what was, physically, at least, the foulest and ugliest part of Rome. In that vicinity lies the Ghetto, where thousands of Jews are crowded within a narrow compass, and lead a close, unclean, and multitudinous life, resembling that of maggots when they over-populate a decaying cheese…

There was a confusion of black and hideous houses, piled massively out of the ruins of former ages; rude and destitute of plan, as a pauper would build his hovel…

Dirt was everywhere, strewing the narrow streets, and incrusting the tall shabbiness of the edifices, from the foundations to the roofs; it lay upon the thresholds, and looked out of the windows, and assumed the guise of human life in the children that Seemed to be engendered out of it. Their father was the sun, and their mother, a heap of Roman mud."
In 1861, Charles Dickens and the Scottish philosopher, essayist and historian, Thomas Carlyle, (1795-1881) were walking past the new Rothschild palace in London. Referring to the time when King John pulled out the teeth of Jewish moneylenders to get them to cough up their hidden wealth, Carlyle said this:

"I do not mean that I want King John back again, but if you ask me which mode of treating these people I hold to have been nearest to the will of the Almighty about them, to build palaces like that, or to take the pincers to them, I declare for the pincers."
Speaking of the Jewish usurer, Benedict, in An Essay on the Folktale, Jocelin de Brakelond, Carlyle was also moved to say:

"I almost hopes that Benedict was one of those beleaguered Jews who hanged themselves in York Castle shortly afterward and had their usances and quittances and horse-leech papers summarily set fire to."
Carlyle also said:

"Actually and spiritually the Jews only deal in money, gold and old clothes; of real worth they have contributed nothing."
Usysses Simpson Grant (1822-1885) was the American General who won the US Civil War for Abraham Lincoln and the North. He went on to become the 18th President of the USA. In 1862, Grant sent a letter to C. P. Wolcott, the Assistant Secretary of War, which said:

"I have long since believed that in spite of all the vigilance that can be infused into post commanders, the special regulations of the Treasury Department have been violated, and that mostly by Jews and other unprincipled traders. So well satisfied have I been of this that I instructed the commanding officers at Columbus to refuse all permits to Jews to come South, and I have frequently had them expelled from the department, but they come in with their carpet-sacks in spite of all that can be done to prevent it.

The Jews seem to be a privileged class that can travel anywhere. They will land at any woodyard on the river and make their way through the country. If not permitted to buy cotton themselves, they will act as agents for someone else, who will be at military post with aTreasury permit to receive cotton and pay for it in Treasury notes which the Jew will buy up at an agreed rate, paying gold."
On November 10, 1862, Grant wrote to General Webster. This is what he said:

"Give order to all the conductors on the road that no Jews are to be permitted to travel on the railroad from any point. They may go north and be encouraged in it; but they are such an intolerable nuisance that the department must be purged of them…

Refuse all permits to come south of Jackson for the present. The Israelites especially should be kept out."
In 1862, Grant was facing a Confederate force in Tennessee. He became annoyed at the large number of Jews who were following his army and issued an order requiring all Jews to leave the army lines. To whit:

"1. The Jews, as a class, violating every regulation of trade established by the Treasury Department, and also Department orders, are hereby expelled from the Department.

2. Within twenty-four hours from the receipt of this order by Post Commanders, they will see that all of this class of people are furnished with passes and required to leave, and anyone returning after such notification, will be arrested and held in confinement until an opportunity occurs of sending them out as prisoners, unless furnished with permits from these headquarters.

3. No permits will be given these people to visit headquarters for the purpose of making personal application for trade permits.
By order of Major Gen. Grant."
The Jews in Washington, subsequently,raised a commotion and sent a delegation to President Lincoln. He listened and told his top man at the time, Genral H. W. Halleck, to have a word with Grant. The expulsion order was immediately countermanded.

The Jew, August Belmont-Schönberg, and the Rothschild financial interests he represented, were the major source of loans keeping the Union military effort going. Lincoln did not wish to upset his bankers. Grant complied with the wishes of Washington but expressed his resentment thus:

"The Jews in my opinion have not changed for the better since the day they crucified Jesus Christ."
Through the Confederate Secretary of State, Judah P. Benjamin, the same Jewish banking syndicate was financing the South.

In a letter from Memphis, dated 30 July 1862, the American General, William Tecumseh Sherman, (1820-91) said this:

"I found so many Jews and speculators here trading in cotton, and sessionists had become so open in refusing anything but gold, that I have felt myself bound to stop it. The gold can have but one use - the purchase of arms and ammunition... Of course, I have respected all permits by yourself or the Secretary of Treasury, but in these new cases I have stopped it.

The cotton speculators are quite clamorous for aid in getting their cotton away from Middleburg, Hickory Valley, etc., and offer to pay liberally for the service. I think I can bring it away with safety, and make pay to the government. As some of the Jew owners have as good as stolen the cotton from the planters, I have no conscientious scruples in making them pay liberally to take it away."
The 16th President of the USA, Abraham Lincoln, (1809-1865) said:

"The enemy behind me, is worse than the enemy in front of me. The money power groups prey on the nation in times of peace, and conspire against them in times of adversity. It denounces as public enemies, all who question it's methods or throw light upon it's crimes."
"The money power prolongs its reign by working on prejudices."
When Lincoln needed more money to carry on the war, he was offered loans by the 'money powers' at 28 percent interest. He wrote to a friend, Colonel Richard Taylor, who was an authority on finance, and asked him:

"Dick, they have me over a barrel. What can I do?"
Colonel Taylor wrote back:

"I think I see a way out for you. In fact I believe it will give you the upper hand. You know the US government has the authority to issue money under Sec. 8, Par S of the Constitution. I suggest you invoke this clause of the Constitution and authorize Congress to print and issue the amount of money you need. This will not cost the government a cent, because it will be interest free. Then tell them to go jump in the river."
Lincoln took his advice and issued 150 million dollars designated as US Notes, referred to then and now as greenbacks.

In a letter written to William Elkin as the Civil War was drawing to a close, less than five months before he was assassinated, Lincoln also said:

"The money power preys upon the nation in times of peace & conspires against it in times of war. It is more despotic than monarchy, more insolent than autocracy, more selfish than bureaucracy. It denounces, as public enemies, all who even question its methods or throw light upon its crimes. I have two great enemies, the Southern Army in front of me & the financial institutions at the rear, the latter is my greatest foe.

I see in the near future a crisis approaching that unnerves me and causes me to tremble for the safety of my country. As a result of the war, corporations have been enthroned and an era of corruption in high places will follow, and the money power of the country will endeavor to prolong its reign by working upon the prejudices of the people until all wealth is aggregated in a few hands, and the Republic is destroyed. I feel at this moment more anxiety for the safety of my country than ever before, even in the midst of war."
By the time Lincoln was ready for a second issue of 'greenbacks,' the bankers had so corrupted, or intimidated Congress, that they passed what was called the Exception Clause, which prohibited Lincoln from issuing any more interest free notes. A short time later he was dead at the hands of John Wilkes Booth.

The Rothschilds made over four billion dollars profit from the Civil War by 'supporting' both sides in the conflict financially. 360,000 young men were butchered. Those who engineered the war would guide the nation’s evolution in the next century towards the Federal Reserve System, (1913) the Council on Foreign Relations and the Tri-Lateralist Comission, the three primary agitators for the New World Order, symbolised, at the start of the twenty first century, by the United Nations; the EU, the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund.

Lincoln's opinion on another matter, even more pressing now than it was then, is starkly illuminating. Almost no one nowadays would know what Lincoln's true attitudes and beliefs were in respect of the negro. Forgive the digression but EVERYONE should be apprised of this stuff.

The PC Crowd would be well advised to give the following quotations a miss.

"Let us be brought to believe it is morally right, and at the same time, favorable to, or at least not against, our interest, to transfer the African to his native clime, and we shall find a way to do it, however great the task may be."

"I have urged the colonization of the negroes, and I shall continue. My Emancipation Proclamation was linked with this plan. There is no room for two distinct races of white men in America, much less for two distinct races of whites and blacks."

"The major cause for American Negroes intellectual and social deficits is hereditary and racially genetic in origin and thus not remedial to a major degree by improvement in environment."

"Such separation, if effected at all, must be effected by colonization... What colonization most needs is a hearty will... Let us be brought to believe that it is morally right, and at the same time favorable to, or at least not against, our interests to transfer the African to his native clime, and we shall find a way to do it, however great the task may be."

"Negro equality! Fudge!! How long, in the government of a God, great enough to make and maintain this Universe, shall there continue to be knaves to vend, and fools to gulp, so low a piece of demagogism as this?"

"I will say then that I am not, nor ever have been in favor of bringing about in any way the social and political equality of the White and Black races, that I am not nor ever have been in favor of making voters or jurors of Negroes, nor of qualifying them to hold office, nor to intermarry with White people, and I will say in addition to this that there is a physical difference between the White and Black races which I believe will forever forbid the two races living together on terms of social and political equality.

And inasmuch as they cannot so live, while they do remain together there must be the position of superior and inferior, and I as much as any other man am in favor of having the superior position assigned to the White race... I give... the most solemn pledge that I will to the very last, stand by the law of the State, which forbids the marrying of white people with negroes."

"Now I say to you, my fellow citizen, that in my opinion, the signers of the Declaration of Independence had no reference to the Negro whatever.

One great evidence is to be found in the fact that at the time every one of the thirteen colonies was a slaveholding colony, every signer of the Declaration representing a slaveholding constituency, and not one of them emancipated his slaves, much less offered citizenship to them when they signed the Declaration. If they intended to declare the Negro was equal of the white man, they were bound that day and hour to have put the Negroes on an equality with themselves."

"I can conceive of no greater calamity than the assimilation of the Negro into our social and political life as our equal... We can never attain the ideal union our fathers dreamed, with millions of an alien, inferior race among us, whose assimilation is neither possible nor desirable."
On 14 August 1862, Lincoln made the folling speech before a Negro deputation in Washington:

"See our present condition, the country engaged in war! Our white men cutting one another’s throats… and then consider what we know to be the truth. But for your race among us there could not be war, although many men engaged on either side do not care for you one way or the other… It is better for us both therefore to be separated...

You and we are different races. We have between us a broader difference than exists between almost any other two races. Whether it is right or wrong I need not discuss, but this physical difference is a great disadvantage to us both, as I think your race suffer very greatly, many of them by living among us, while ours suffer from your presence. In a word we suffer on each side. If this be admitted, it affords a reason at least why we should be separated."
According to the autobiography of Union General Benjamin F. Butler, Lincoln made the following statement in April 1865, less than two weeks before his assassination.

"But what shall we do with the negroes after they are free? I can hardly believe that the South and the North can live in peace, unless we can get rid of the negroes...

You have been a staunch friend of the (Black) race from the time you first advised me to enlist them at New Orleans. You have had a good deal of experience in moving bodies of men by water, - your movement up the James was a magnificent one. Now, we shall have use for our very large navy; what, then, are our difficulties in sending all the blacks away?...

I fear a race war... I wish you would carefully examine the question and give me your views upon it and go into the figures, as you did before in some degree, so as to show whether the negroes can be exported."
To Lincoln, the only workable long-term solution to the race problem in America was repatriation. He shared this opinion with the company of many other giants of American history, among them Thomas Jefferson, James Monroe, James Madison, Andrew Jackson, and even the writer ofthe national anthem, Francis Scott Key. All were active members of the American Colonization Society.

In a papal decree of 13 July 1865, Pope Pius IX (1792-1878) said this:

"If one takes into consideration the immense development which… secret societies have attained; the length of time they are persevering in their vigour; their furious aggressiveness; the tenacity with which their members cling to the association and to the false principles it professes; the persevering mutual cooperation of so many different types of men in the promotion of evil; one can hardly deny that the supreme architect of these associations can be none other than he who in the sacred writings is styled the Prince of the World; and that Satan himself… inspires at least the leaders of these bodies."
In 1867, Pius canonized Peter Arbues, a 15th century inquisitor famed for forcible conversion of Jews. Pius said this in the canonization document:

"The divine wisdom has arranged that in these sad days, when Jews help the enemies of the church with their books and money, this decree of sanctity has been brought to fulfillment."
In 1871, addressing a group of Catholic women, Pius said that Jews 'had been children in the House of God, but owing to their obstinacy and their failure to believe, they have become dogs.' He added:

"We have today in Rome unfortunately too many of these dogs, and we hear them barking in all the streets, and going around molesting people everywhere."
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